FACTS ON FILE REFERENCE DATABASES: Login to FACTS ON FILE to access a great collection of history reference databases. If you're using FACTS ON FILE on your home computer, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN.
AP Archive - See Historical News Video Archives, below.
Archaeology Magazine - Free online content includes archaelogy news, feature articles, field reports, and links on a wide variety of archaelogical research and discoveries around the world, ranging from ancient civilizations to more recent American history; links were created in 2011 and have not been updated. High school and up (Archaeological Institute of America; site includes advertisements). See also DINOSAURS, FOSSILS, & THE PREHISTORIC WORLD.
Avalon Project - Online text of historic documents (primary sources) from the ancient era (4000 B.C.E. - 399) to the 21st century. Includes hundreds of documents such as the Code of Hammurabi, Athenian Constitution, Magna Carta, Articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence, Emancipation Proclamation, and Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as numerous treaties, documents of both World Wars and later conflicts, and much more. (Yale University)
Best of History Websites - Well-organized directory of over 1000 selected history web sites, arranged by time period & location, plus links to curriculum materials for teachers. (By educators Thomas Daccord and Justin Reich; site includes advertisements)
Children and Youth in World History AUDIO - 'Explore the history of children and youth through primary sources, website reviews, teaching modules, and case studies.' For teachers and students, high school and up (Center for History and New Media, George Mason University). See also British Children, below.
Disabilities: History - See Museum of Disability History and related links.
eHistory VIDEO - An excellent and user-friendly collection of short biographies, articles, online books, exhibitions, oral histories, images, timelines, videos, and more, covering all periods from ancient history to the 21st century. You can browse the collection by era, region, or topic. (Ohio State University)
Eyewitness - Primary materials including first-person accounts, documents and images. Covers a variety of events in the U.S. and abroad, including the Fall of the Bastille in 1789, the American Revolution, the civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, the assasinations of Abraham Lincoln & John F. Kennedy, the meeting of Truman and Stalin, the re-unification of Germany, and more. High school and up. (National Archives)
Historic News Video Archives - See AP Archive and related links, including links to video footage from the Associated Press, British Movietone, British Pathé and BBC Motion Gallery.
Historic Photos - See GENERAL HOMEWORK HELP: Pictures.
Historical & Cultural Contexts INTERACTIVE - 'Do you keep a journal, write letters, send emails, take pictures, or write poetry? If you do, you are recording history, creating the kinds of primary sources that historians use to learn about daily life in the past.' With this collection of interactives, you can 'use your sleuthing skills to figure out when and where an historical event took place by examining some primary sources and using an educated guess to pinpoint them on a map and timeline.' (2007, Annenberg Media)
Historical Maps - A large collection of historical maps dating from the 15th century onward; mostly U.S. maps. You can browse different collections, or search for maps by keyword. Click on a map to get a zoomable image (Library of Congress). For historical maps of all areas of the world, see Old Maps Online (University of Portsmouth [UK] et al.).
History & Politics Out Loud AUDIO - Important speeches and other recorded materials (primary sources), including speeches of Martin Luther King Jr., Winston Churchill, FDR, John F. Kennedy, Nikita Krushchev and others. Sources of biographical and other background information are not cited (site was originally by Jerry Goldman & Michigan State University, now hosted by WyzAnt Tutoring; site includes advertisements). Project Gutenberg offers a collection of miscellaneous Historical Recordings AUDIO which include FDR's Day of Infamy speech, Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton on his South Pole expedition, Thomas Edison on Electricity & Progress, and other early recordings.
History for Kids INTERACTIVE [Archived page] - Interactive lessons, games and activities on Ancient History, World History, and British History; for middle school and up. Similar content is available at BBC Schools: Primary History and BBC Bitesize: History. (British Broadcasting Corporation)
History Guide - Resources - A selection of annotated links, grouped under the headings Primary Documents, Meta-Lists, United States History, Western Civilization, World History, and Resources for Teachers. Last revised in 2014; expect broken links. High school and up. (Dr. Steven Kreis, Ph.D. in History from the University of Missouri-Columbia)
Medicine: History - See History of Medicine links.
Science: History - See History of Science links.
WGBH Open Vault VIDEO - Video archive of interviews, speeches, news stories, and other historically important content dating back to the 1970s. Includes printable transcripts. Free registration required for full access. (Public television station WGBH)
World History For Us All - Designed for teachers, but background materials on each historical era should be helpful to high school students as well. This site offers teaching units, lesson plans, activities, & resources, and introduces educators to an integrative approach to world history, culture, and geography. (San Diego State University and UCLA)
Astronomical Information Center - Current and historical information about time, time zones, calendars, holidays, the International Date Line, and more. High school and up. (U.S. Naval Observatory)
Calendars through the Ages - Information about all different types of calendars, including Chinese, Christian, Indian, Islamic, Jewish, and ancient calendars. Includes related pages on the History of Daylight Saving Time (2008, Claus Tøndering et al.; site includes advertisements), Daylight Saving Time, and A Walk Through Time (History of Clocks & Timekeeping) (2016, Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement / U.S. Department of Commerce). See also Calendar, a brief history of calendars and their development in various cultures, with links to related topics (2007, Wolfram Science World).
On This Day (New York Times) - Use this page to find out what important events took place in previous years on any particular day of any month (site includes advertisements). On This Day (BBC News) covers 1950 - 2005; use the drop-downs to to choose a day (UK). Today in History is another site offering text and images from events of the past for each day of the month. Click on 'archives' to choose a day or browse by month (Library of Congress). The Edsitement Calendar lists historic events for every day of the month, with related lesson plans, websites, and student resources for each event (National Endowment for the Humanities).
Perpetual Calendar (TimeandDate.com) - Do you want to know what day of the week March 30, 2050 will be, or what day of the week June 15, 1215 was? Enter a year, past or future, in the 'Create Calendar' box. Site displays one year at a time (site includes advertisements).
World Clock - Need to know what time it is in Addis Ababa, Bujumbura, Ulaanbaatar or Zagreb? This page offers the current time in dozens of cities around the world, arranged A to Z; you can also sort the list by country or time zone. (TimeandDate.com; site includes advertisements)
Food & Culture links
America the Bountiful - Explores American history in different eras through foods that were commonly consumed (2013, University of California). Resetting the Table examines the immense changes that took place between 1950 and 2000 in what and how Americans ate, and in how they thought and felt about food (2012, American Museum of Natural History). In What's Cooking, Uncle Sam? VIDEO you can learn about the history of the U.S. government's involvement in agriculture, food processing & labeling, and American eating habits (2011, Foundation for the National Archives).
Food Timeline - 'Ever wonder what the Vikings ate when they set off to explore the new world? How Thomas Jefferson made his ice cream? What the pioneers cooked along the Oregon Trail? Who invented the potato chip...and why?' This page offers links to many interesting articles on food in history, plus recipes from different times and places (2015; by reference librarian Lynne Olver).
Harvest of History - Primary sources (images, objects, documents) on American agricultural history. Also includes an interactive exploration of past and current Farming & Food Production VIDEO (2017, Farmers' Museum, Cooperstown, NY). See also Growing a Nation: the Story of American Agriculture AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE (2014; Professor Debra Spielmaker et al., Utah State University), and Wessels Living History Farm VIDEO (2017, York Community Foundation, York NE).
History of Food & Agriculture - Chronicles the history of food and agriculture, beginning with pre-agricultural times of hunting, gathering and fishing, through the development of agriculture, to the 'agro-industrial' period starting with the industrial revolution. Focus is on the European / Mediterranean region. (2001, Agropolis-Museum, France)
Medieval Cookery - Recipes, menus, and other resources on cookery of the middle ages. (By cookery enthusiasts Daniel Myers and Kristen Sullivan; sources of information are cited.)
Wine: Origins & Ancient History - Examines the origins of wine and its uses in the Neolithic period, ancient Egypt, and Mesopotamia. (2009, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania)
Costume & Textile Collections Online - Links to museums and universities that offer online exhibits of costumes & textiles (2016, Fashion Institute of Technology).
Costumes & Textiles - Online exhibit provides brief text and lavish images to illustrate the different types of clothing, textiles, and embellishments (beading, embroidery, printing, dying, etc.) from different places and historic periods around the world, explaining their varied traditions and cultural uses. (2009, Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington)
Fashion, Jewellery & Accessories VIDEO - Images and text (and some videos) surveying various aspects of fashionable dress from the 17th century to the present; also includes accessories such as jewellery, gloves and handbags. (Victoria and Albert Museum)
Historic Threads - Explore history's wardrobe in this online exhibit featuring three centuries of historic clothing and accessories. From attending formal balls to getting dressed for bed, the antique clothing tells the story of daily life. (Colonial Williamsburg)
Ready-To-Wear Clothing [Archived page] - In pre-industrial America, most clothing was crafted at home or by professional tailors or dressmakers from individual measurements taken of each customer. This site offers an introduction to the history of ready-made clothing and the development of standard sizes and measurements. (2004, National Institute of Standards; now on Internet Archive)
Textile Mills - Online exhibits on the history of textiles and the textile industry. Includes photos and texts showing how workers and managers lived, mill machinery, and more. (Windham Textile and History Museum, Willlimantic, CT)
Buy Now, Pay Later - Text & illustrations show how previous generations devised creative ways of lending and borrowing long before credit cards, and how the credit industry evolved over time. High school and up. (2010, Harvard University)
History of the U.S. Income Tax - A brief overview of the origins of income taxes and the Internal Revenue Service, plus links to documents, articles, cartoons and quotes. For advanced students (2012, Library of Congress). See also History of the U.S. Treasury (2017, U.S. Treasury Department).
How Much is that Worth Today? - Compares the purchasing power of money in the United States (or colonies) 1665 to any other year up to 2014 (2015; by Lawrence H. Officer and Samuel H. Williamson, University of Illinois Economics Professors). You can also use the CPI inflation calculator, for a simple comparison of U.S. purchasing power from 1913 to the present (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). For much more information on the comparative value of money in history, see the Economic History Association, and the University of Exeter (UK) Money Links (2017).
What is Money - Explains the different types of money, the history of money, saving money, how money is made, and money and society (British Museum). See also Fun Facts About Coins and Money UPDATED LINK! (US Mint). See Historical American Currency for images of U.S. paper currency since the Colonial era, with brief summaries on the historical context for each period (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco). See Money - Past, Present & Future for additional information (2014, University of Exeter, UK).
See : LOCAL INFORMATION
Ethnic Groups/Multicultural: Women
FACTS ON FILE: AMERICAN WOMEN'S HISTORY - Covers the important people, events, legislation, and issues relevant to the study of women's history in the United States. NOTE: AMERICAN WOMEN'S HISTORY is no longer available as a separate database. Its content is now part of Facts on File: American History Online.
American Women through Time - A timeline ranging from prehistory through 2001. The timeline does include links to more information on many topics, but these have not been updated for years; expect many broken links! (2012, Middle Tennessee State University). Women Who Changed History profiles amazing American women like Amelia Earhart, Rosa Parks, and Sally Ride, plus the history behind women's fight for the right to vote. Includes quizzes and other activities. Middle school and up (Scholastic Inc.). Women Who Shape History: Education Resources NEW! has links to lesson plans and other teaching materials on American women's history (Smithsonian Magazine; site includes advertisements). The National Women's History Museum offers online exhibits, biographies, articles, and many other resources on a wide range of topics in American women's history (non-profit organization). Women's Rights (U.S.) gives an overview of the early U.S. women's rights movement beginning with the Seneca Falls convention of 1848; the linked text (primary document) of the 1848 Declaration of Sentiments includes links to biographies of key activists. See also Seneca Falls Women's Rights National Historical Park (National Park Service). Places Where Women Made History links to websites of 74 historic places associated with varied aspects women's history in the U.S. Each website offers background material on the events or persons connected with the place (National Park Service). Women in Congress offers historical essays, links, biographical profiles, and images of each woman Member from 1917 to the present (U.S. House of Representatives, Office of the Clerk). African American Women in Congress has brief biographies of past and current women in the Congressional Black Caucus, and a record of their achievements. See also Women's History Month, Women's History Quizzes (National Women's History Project), as well as New Jersey Women's History, New York Women's History, Votes for Women, and Woman's Work links, below.
Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh - A brief overview of the life of Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt for two decades (ca. 1473-1458 B.C.), and was the first important female ruler known to history (Metropolitan Museum). For a broader look at the position of women in Ancient Egypt, see From Warrior Women to Female Pharaohs [Archived page] (2011, British Broadcasting Corporation).
Jewish Women's Archive: Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia of Jewish Women - 'Features over 1,700 biographies, 300 thematic essays, and 1,400 photographs and illustrations on a wide range of Jewish women through the centuries - from Gertrude Berg to Gertrude Stein; Hannah Greenebaum Solomon to Hannah Arendt; the Biblical Ruth to Ruth Bader Ginsburg.' The site also includes Jewish Women: This Week in History VIDEO, covering 350 years of American Jewish women's history, and Jewish Women: Women of Valor (formerly History Makers) AUDIO VIDEO, profiles of 'trailblazing Jewish women who overcame social, cultural and religious barriers to create a more just and equitable world.'; some of the profiles include audio and video clips. (Non-profit organization)
New Jersey Women's History - Brief biographies, documents and lesson plans dealing with the history of women in New Jersey; arranged by time period. Also offers related links and bibliography. (2014, Rutgers University)
New York Women's History - Brief biographies of notable New York women, from the early Suffrage & Women's Movements, literature & the arts, education, government, health care, labor, and social movements. (2014, New York Hall of Governors)
Overlooked NEW! - Since 1851, The New York Times has published thousands of obituaries. The vast majority chronicled the lives of men, mostly white ones. On this page you'll find obituaries for remarkable women who were previously overlooked. (2018, New York Times)
Votes for Women Photographs - This collection of images from 1850-1920 includes portraits of early U.S. feminists, suffrage parades, picketing suffragists, and an anti-suffrage display, as well as cartoons commenting on the movement (Library of Congress). For information on the suffrage movement in Great Britain, see The Struggle for Suffrage (Historic England).
Women at War (U.S.) - See Veterans' Stories and related links.
Women in 18th Century England INTERACTIVE - This site provides a sense of what life was like for a woman in 18th century England by putting you in her place. You will be presented with a series of life choices, along with relevant historical information, and then learn about the consequences of your choice. High school and up (1999, University of Michigan student project). For more on British women's history, see Historic England: Women's History (Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England).
Women's Life in Ancient Greece & Rome - In-depth information covering poets & writers, philosophers, legal status of women, public & private lives, occupations, medicine, religion, and more. High school and up. (Stoa Consortium; authors Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant et al.)
Woman's Work is Never Done - 'A selection of images that illustrate many facets of American women's work, from the beginning of the American Revolution through the Industrial Revolution'; includes background information for each category. High school and up (2004, American Antiquarian Society). Women Working, 1870 - 1930 offers online books, pamphlets, photographs, letters, diaries, and other manuscripts (primary resources) exploring women's roles in the U.S. economy between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Documents conditions in the home and at work, costs of living, recreation, health and hygiene and more. Includes many brief biographies of notable women. High school and up (Harvard University).
FACTS ON FILE: ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY Explores the pre-modern world with in-depth focus on Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, Africa, Europe, the Americas, and Asia. If you're logging on from your home computer, you'll have to enter your name, library card barcode, and PIN to begin.
Ancient City of Petra INTERACTIVE - Founded along the ancient trade routes between Arabia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Sea, the ancient city of Petra became very wealthy and powerful. This site describes the history of Petra, and takes you on a virtual walk through the ruins. (American Museum of Natural History)
Ancient Civilizations - An exploration of ancient history covering prehistoric humans, Ancient Egypt, the birth of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, & Buddhism, the birth of democracy, the first Olympics, Julius Caesar, the invention of writing, paper, & the wheel, the Maya, Inca & Aztecs, African kingdoms, the Great Wall of China, Samurai, martial arts, palaces of gold, and more! Middle school and up. (Independence Hall Association, Philadelphia PA; site includes advertisements)
Ancient History INTERACTIVE [Archived page] - Articles, multimedia, links, and interactive content on a variety of topics in ancient history. Covers Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Vikings, Anglo Saxons, and others. High school and up; younger students, see the related site, History for Kids, above. (British Broadcasting Corporation)
Ancient Olympics - Stories of ancient Olympic athletes, the various sports and games played, FAQ, and a tour of Olympia (Tufts University). See also The Real Story of the Ancient Olympics (Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania).
Ancient Worlds VIDEO INTERACTIVE - A collection of articles, videos, interactives, interviews, and more, from PBS Nova. (Site includes advertisements)
China (Ancient) - See China: Ancient China, below
Egyptians INTERACTIVE [Archived page] - Articles, timelines, pictures, and games about the pyramids, the Nile, mummies, hieroglyphs, magic, and more; for high school students (British Broadcasting Corporation). Explore Ancient Egypt UPDATED LINK! INTERACTIVE looks at the Ancient Egyptian pyramids, gods, writing & number systems, mummies and more; includes interactive 'challenges'. For elementary and middle school students (Children's University of Manchester, UK). Ancient Egypt Guide [Link opens a PDF] is a colorful, printable lesson on pharaohs, mummies, pyramids, and hieroglyphs, with quizzes and activities; middle school. (2013, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania). For more on Ancient Egypt, visit Mysteries of the Nile VIDEO (1999 - 2013, PBS; site includes advertisements). See also The truth about ancient Egypt, an interview with Egyptologist John Romer (2017, BBC History Magazine; site includes advertisements).
Greece: Ancient Greece INTERACTIVE - Well-organized and interesting site explores life in Ancient Greece using interactive stories and descriptions. Covers daily life, festivals & games, gods & goddesses, knowledge & learning, war, and more; includes interactive 'challenges'. Middle school and up (British Museum). See also The Ancient Greek World (2002, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania). For elementary and middle school students, Ancient Greeks [NOTE: Video clips do not play in the U.S.] (British Broadcasting Corporation) and Explore Ancient Greece UPDATED LINK! INTERACTIVE (Children's University of Manchester) have lots of interesting facts about life and culture in Ancient Greece, gods & heroes, Olympic games, wars, language, and more.
Megiddo UPDATED LINK! - A history of Megiddo, which is widely regarded as the most important biblical period site in Israel. Includes descriptions and photos of archaeological excavations on the site, and expedition news. (2009 - 2018, Tel Aviv University et al.; site includes advertisements)
Odyssey INTERACTIVE - Explores the art and culture of the ancient world, including the Near East, Egypt, Greece (updated, with interactive multimedia presentation), Rome, Africa, and the Americas. For elementary and middle school students. (2008, Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University et al.).
Pompeii: Stories from an Eruption - Chronicles the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79, with many photos and descriptions of artifacts recovered from Pompeii and nearby towns. (2007, Field Museum, Chicago)
Prehistory - See DINOSAURS, FOSSILS, & THE PREHISTORIC WORLD.
Romans [NOTE: Video clips do not play in the U.S.] - Looks at life in ancient Rome and in the Roman army, Roman influences on the British Isles, and more; for elementary and middle school students (British Broadcasting Corporation). The Roman Empire in the First Century INTERACTIVE offers an overview of ancient Rome, with a good section on Life in Roman Times, as well as information on society, emperors, politics, religion, and more, plus special features including a timeline, interactive game & quiz, and virtual library; middle school and up (2006, PBS; site includes advertisements).
Scythians - Some key facts about the Scythians, a group of ancient tribes of nomadic warriors who originally lived in what is now southern Siberia. Their culture flourished from around 900 BC to around 200 BC, by which time they had extended their influence all over Central Asia, from China to the northern Black Sea (2017, British Museum). [CAUTION: This site includes links to Wikipedia articles.]
Stonehenge: History - Historical overview and description of the famous ancient British monument (English Heritage: Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England). For links to other ancient sites in England, go to Find Places to Visit and, under Types of Places, select 'Prehistoric' OR 'Roman' (English Heritage: Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England). For some important French megalithic sites, see Megaliths in Morbihan (French Ministry of Culture and Communication).
INDIAN TRIBES / NATIVE PEOPLES
FACTS ON FILE: MODERN WORLD HISTORY ONLINE Covers the people, places, and events in the broad expanse of history from mid-15th century to the present. If you're logging on at home, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN to begin.
Age of Exploration - See Exploration through the Ages, below.
American Journeys - Hundreds of eyewitness accounts (primary documents) from explorers, Indians, missionaries, traders and settlers as they lived through the founding moments of American history, from the sagas of Vikings in Canada in AD1000 to the diaries of mountain men in the Rockies 800 years later. Includes background info, maps, portraits, and other images. High school and up. (2003, Wisconsin Historical Society)
Christopher Columbus - A brief overview of Columbus's life, career, voyages, and legacy. Middle school and up (Royal Museums Greenwich, UK). For more details on his voyages, see Exploration through the Ages: Christopher Columbus (Mariners' Museum). See also 1492: Columbus in American Memory AUDIO (2014, Backstory Radio), Christopher Columbus: Italian Explorer (2016, Encyclopædia Britannica; site includes advertisements), and 1492: An Ongoing Voyage, below.
Exploration through the Ages - Learn about maritime discovery from ancient times to Captain Cook's 1768 voyage to the South Pacific, covering explorations by the Arabs, Chinese, and Phoenicians as well as Europeans. Includes biographies of explorers, information about the voyages, vocabulary, maps, learning activities, and bibliography. Middle school and up. (Mariners' Museum)
Parallel Histories: Exploration and Early Settlement - Learn about Spanish exploration and colonization of North America. Includes a timeline, images and documents. (2005, Library of Congress)
Spanish Conquistadors - See Conquistadors, below
African-American Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - African & African-American.
African Voices: History UPDATED LINK! - Timeline exploring the millenia history of Africa's history from the beginnings of human evolution through the 20th century. 'Learn how Africans have developed cities and empires, philosophies and religions, technologies and trade...' (ca. 1999, Smithsonian Institution)
Mandela AUDIO - 'A five-part radio series documenting the struggle against apartheid [in South Africa] through rare sound recordings, the voice of Nelson Mandela himself, as well as those who fought with him, and against him.' Includes text and photos. Click on The Stories to get started. High school and up (2005, with a 2013 update; Radio Diaries, Inc. & Corporation for Public Broadcasting). See also Nelson Mandela Timeline UPDATED LINK! (Nelson Mandela Foundation) and Nelson Mandela, Nobel Laureate. Mandela and other political prisoners were imprisoned on South Africa's Robben Island VIDEO; the website includes prisoner stories and a timeline exploring the history of the island shaped by its many different occupants and uses (Robben Island Museum).
The Ottomans - Examines the history, military, royalty, and culture of the Ottoman Empire, which once dominated a large territory from Egypt to Russia, from India to Austria. (2002, LuckyEye Interactive and Netideas Capital Limited; site includes advertisements)
Story of Africa [NOTE: Archived page; audio files will not play.] - The history of Africa from the dawn of time to the present. Covers the rise and fall of empires and kingdoms, religion, slavery, and trade. Also depicts life under colonialism, the struggle against it, and the achievement of independence. (2002, British Broadcasting Corporation)
Asia for Educators VIDEO - Asian studies resources for teachers and students at all levels. Covers prehistory through the present era, and includes primary sources, timelines, lesson plans, background materials on key themes, short videos on Asian history, art, & geography, and more. (2002 - 2013, Columbia University)
Asian-American Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - Asian & Asian American.
China: Ancient China - Explores the cultures of Ancient China, including crafts, artisans, writing, tombs & ancestors, and more; with photos. Click on a subject, then click on the image that appears. (2007, British Museum)
China: 50 Years of Communism [NOTE: Archived page; media files will not play.] - A look back at the history of China from 1949-1999, with articles and images (2000, British Broadcasting Corporation). See also Li Zhensheng: Red-Color News Soldier for an overview of China's Cultural Revolution, 1964-1976. Brief text with lots of photographs; mouse over images for descriptions (Contact Press Images). High school and up.
China: Tiananmen Square VIDEO - A timeline which 'tracks how the protests began in April among university students in Beijing, spread across the nation, and ended on June 4 with a final deadly assault by an estimated force of 300,000 soldiers from People's Liberation Army.' Site includes online video of the entire Frontline program about the Tiananmen Square protests; contains graphic imagery, viewer discretion is advised. (2006, PBS; site includes advertisements)
India: History and Politics of India - Explores the history and politics of India from ancient times, through Mughal and British rule, to the present. (1998 & 2007 by Vinay Lal, UCLA)
Japan - A brief history of Japan from the prehistoric to the modern period (2008, Virtual Museum of Japan; Kodansha International Ltd.).
The Ottomans - Examines the history, military, royalty, and culture of the Ottoman Empire, which once dominated a large territory from Egypt to Russia, from India to Austria. (2002, LuckyEye Interactive and Netideas Capital Limited; site includes advertisements)
Russia / Soviet Union, see: Europe.
Secrets of the Silk Road - The Silk Road was a vast system of trade routes that connected China with the West, allowing for the exchange of goods, ideas, technology, and religions. This website examines the Tarim Basin in western China, the path for anyone traveling along the Silk Road. The many cultures passing through this region influenced the people living there, bringing new commodities, beliefs, and technologies to their way of life (2011, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology). See also The Silk Road: Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust (2002, Smithsonian Institution).
Vietnam - See Korean & Vietnam Wars, below.
Anti-Vietnam War Protests AUDIO VIDEO - A year-by-year summary of key events in the war itself, and in the anti-war movement, with accompanying primary source documents, images, audio and video materials, and links to additional information throughout. High school and up. [CAUTION: This site includes links to Wikipedia articles.] (2010, University of California, Berkeley)
History of Vietnam - From the early dynasties through the Vietnam War and postwar economic and social modernization. Click on 'Vietnam' in the lefthand menu to choose a time period or topic. (By C.N. Le, professor of Sociology at University of Massachusetts)
Pentagon Papers Archive AUDIO - A brief overview plus supporting materials (primary sources) relating to the case of the Pentagon Papers, classified documents on the Vietnam war published by the New York Times in 1971. Audio and transcripts, Supreme Court documents, and more. (2001, George Washington University)
Vietnam War Era Ephemera - Historical overview with digitized leaflets and newspapers (primary sources) distributed during the anti-war and other activist campaigns of the 1960s and 1970s. (University of Washington)
Vietnam Project AUDIO - Recorded interviews, photographs, a collection of original documents and other primary source materials relating to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. High school and up. (Texas Tech University)
British History INTERACTIVE [Archived pages] - Lessons on British History from the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest through the 20th Century, with sections on the Normans, the Middle Ages, the Tudors, Civil War & Revolution, Empire & Sea Power, Abolition, Victorians, Homefront WW1 & WW2, and Making Modern Britain. Includes games, virtual tours, related links, and a Timeline of British History from the Neolithic age to 2005; for high school and up. See also Museum of London Learning Resources, for middle school and up. Younger kids, see History for Kids and related links (BBC), above. Walk Through Time INTERACTIVE [Archived page] presents British history for kids age 7 - 9. (British Broadcasting Corporation)
British Children: V & A Museum of Childhood - Explore a collection of childhood objects such as toys, dolls, dollhouses, games & puzzles, clothing and more, from the 16th century to the present day (Victoria & Albert Museum of Childhood).
Eighteenth Century England - A collection of student projects, exploring numerous aspects of life in 18th century England. Includes Capital Punishment in 18th-Century England, The English Bride, Join the British Army!, 18th-Century Food, and dozens of other topics. High school and up. (1999 - 2002, University of Michigan)
England and the Transatlantic Slave Trade: Black British History in the 18th and 19th Centuries - Information on Black Lives in England, The Slave Trade & Plantation Wealth, and Abolitionists; middle school and up (Historic England). Recovered Histories provides primary sources such as pamphlets and supplementary texts which capture the voices of the enslaved, enslavers, slave ship surgeons, abolitionists, parliamentarians, the clergy, planters and rebels (Anti-Slavery International, a UK registered charity). See also Abolition of the Slave Trade; high school and up (2012, New York Public Library).
European-American Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - European-Americans.
Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe (Making the History of 1989) VIDEO - Essays, interviews, and over 300 primary sources, including government documents, images, videos, and artifacts, on the fall of communism in Eastern Europe (2007, George Mason University). Communism in Central & Eastern Europe UPDATED LINK! [Archived page] VIDEO offers articles, videos and other material related to the revolutions of 1989 in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania, and to the state of democracy, culture and civil society in the region twenty years later. (2010, Transitions Online, a nonprofit media organization based in Prague). High school and up.
French Revolution - 'An accessible and lively introduction to the French Revolution as well as an extraordinary archive of some of the most important documentary evidence from the Revolution, including 338 texts, 245 images, and a number of maps and songs.' High school and up. (2001, Center for History and New Media, George Mason University)
History for Kids - See History for Kids, above.
Industrial History in Europe - Examines the industrial history of Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Norway. Includes brief biographies of key figures, and links to related resources (European Route of Industrial Heritage). [CAUTION: This site includes links to Wikipedia articles.]
Jewish Life in Eastern Europe AUDIO - Describes the different places Jews lived and their everyday life and culture in Eastern Europe before World War II, including music, food, language, politics, and religion. With pictures, recipes, and audio (2004, YIVO Institute For Jewish Research). See also Beyond the Pale: The History of Jews in Russia (1995, by historian Dr. Joke Kniesmeyer and author Daniel Cil Brecher).
Life in a Medieval Castle [Archived page] - 'A British historian talks about everyday life in a medieval English castle, giving a sense of how lords and ladies, archers and engineers, cooks and carpenters lived their lives behind castle walls.' (2000, PBS; site includes advertisements)
Life in the Middle Ages - Explores what daily life was like in the Middle Ages. (2011, Annenberg Media)
Magna Carta VIDEO - Magna Carta is one of the most famous documents in the world. This site explores its 800-year legacy with articles by leading experts, videos & animations, primary documents, and a range of teaching resources (British Library). For more on Magna Carta's continuing influence on principles of freedom, democracy and the rule of law around the world, see Magna Carta Today (Magna Carta 2015 Committee).
The Ottomans - Examines the history, military, royalty, and culture of the Ottoman Empire, which once dominated a large territory from Egypt to Russia, from India to Austria. (2002, LuckyEye Interactive and Netideas Capital Limited; site includes advertisements)
Renaissance INTERACTIVE - Explores the intellectual and economic changes that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries (2011, Annenberg Media). See also The Renaissance, which includes a flash timeline and non-flash timeline (PBS / Devillier Donegan Enterprises; site includes advertisements).
Russian History - 'This chronology of Russian history provides the dates the major events of Russian history from the beginnings of written Russian history (The Tale of By-gone Years)' through the year 2000; expect broken links (2008, Bucknell University). For information about the ancient tribes of nomadic warriors who originally lived in what is now southern Siberia, see Scythians, above. Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825 [Archived page] 'traces Russia's movement from relative isolation to global empire through its contacts with Europe, Asia, and the Americas (2004, New York Public Library). See Revelations from the Russian Archives for information on Soviet history from the Revolution through Perestroika (1996, Library of Congress). The Gulag NEW! VIDEO is a virtual museum devoted to the history of the vast network of forced labor camps which was once scattered across the length and breadth of the Soviet Union. Includes a virtual Gulag, timeline, videos and more (2014, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation). High school and up. For more links on the Cold War & US-Soviet relations, see 20th Century U.S. History.
Stonehenge - See Stonehenge and related links, above.
Vikings - Describes the Vikings' voyages of exploration as well as their daily life (2000 - 2001, Norwegian Ministry of Education).
1492: An Ongoing Voyage - This site answers the questions, 'What was life like in the Western Hemisphere and the Mediterranean before 1492? What spurred European expansion? How did European, African and American peoples react to each other? What were some of the immediate results of these contacts?' (1992 - 2000, Library of Congress). See also Christopher Columbus and related links, above.
Conquistadors [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] - Learn about the Spanish Conquistadors in the New World and their contact with Native Americans; middle school and up. Click on the name of a Conquistador to begin. (2001, Oregon Public Broadcasting and PBS Online; site includes advertisements)
Hispanic-American Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - Hispanic-American & Latino.
Library of Congress Online Hispanic Collections - Additional online exhibits and digital collections 'encompassing Latin America, the Caribbean, Hispanics and Portuguese in the United States, the Iberian Peninsula, and other places where Iberian culture dominated and has survived.' Includes articles & essays, maps, documents, paintings, prints, and artifacts.
Maya Ball [Link opens a PDF] - 'The ancient Greeks may have had their Olympics, and the Romans their gladiators, but when it comes to team sports, nobody beat the Maya...' This colorful printable lesson explores the origins of team sports in early Mayan culture. For middle school students. (2012, Penn Museum, University of Pennsylvania)
Panama Canal - An online exhibition offering a history of the building of the Canal, featuring timeline, photographs, blueprints, maps, letters, diaries, postcards, news clippings, and more. (2015, Linda Hall Library and United Engineering Societies Foundation)
Spanish-American War - Images, texts, bibliographies and other resources on the Spanish-American War (1898), the period before the war, and some of the fascinating people who participated in the fighting or commented about it, with information about Cuba, Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States. Includes an overview essay and a general timeline about the war and the period. Links within the texts provide additional information (2010, Library of Congress). Destruction of the USS Maine briefly examines 'the blowing up of the battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor... a critical event on the road to that war' (2014, Naval History and Heritage Command, U.S. Navy).
Ancient Egypt - See Egypt links in the Prehistory & Ancient History section, above.
Ancient Israel - See Megiddo, above.
Arab-American Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - Arab, Arab-American & Muslim.
CIA in Iran - Explores the pivotal role of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in the plot which overthrew Iran's elected Prime Minister in 1953. High school and up (2000, New York Times). See also CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup (2013, National Security Archive; George Washington University)
Israel [NOTE: Archived page; videos may not play.] - Chronological history of key events in Israel's history since its creation in 1948 through 2008, plus links to related materials (British Broadcasting Corporation).
Jewish Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - Jewish.
Middle East: Global Connections [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] - Explores the history of the Middle East region and the relationship between the Middle East and the West, looking at events through the lens of politics, science, economics, and more. Examines the appeal of religious militancy, the role of women, the impact of oil & other natural resources, and other 'big-picture' questions. Created in 2002, so more recent events are not included; expect broken links. (WGBH Educational Foundation)
Muslim Heritage - See HOMEWORK LINKS: Ethnic Groups/Multicultural - Arab, Arab-American & Muslim.
Petra - See Ancient City of Petra, above.
Women in Ancient Egypt - See Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh and related links, above.
20th Century U.S. History
Dear Miss Breed AUDIO VIDEO - A collection of letters and postcards written from internment camps by young Japanese-Americans, showing what life was like for the children and teenagers being held in the camps (2010, Japanese American National Museum). For a brief overview, see Japanese Relocation During World War II (2016, U.S. National Archives). The Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives depicts life inside the detention camps using primary sources such as personal & official photographs, letters & diaries, transcribed oral histories, art, and more. Also offers background, timeline, and lesson plans (Calisphere, University of California). For additional photographs, see Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar (2009, Library of Congress; photos by Ansel Adams).
Flight and Rescue VIDEO - 'Just months before the mass killings of the Holocaust began, some 2,100 Jewish refugees fled war-torn Europe. With the help of Jan Zwartendijk, a Dutch businessman, and Chiune Sugihara, a Japanese diplomat, the refugees escaped and ultimately found safety.' This multimedia presentation tells their story (2006, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum). Stories of Rescue VIDEO offers more stories of courageous non-Jews who rescued Jews from the Nazis in more than two dozen countries; click a country on the map or use the dropdown menu to see more stories; includes some video. Formerly Stories of Moral Courage (2010, Jewish Foundation for the Righteous).
Germany and Europe, 1871-1945 - A virtual textbook, arranged by time period and subject, describing the history of Germany leading up to the Nazis rise to power. High school and up. (By Raffael Scheck, Colby College history professor)
Hiroshima: Ground Zero VIDEO - This short video shows 'haunting, once-classified images of absence and annihilation' caused by the atomic bomb (International Center of Photography). Voices of Hiroshima is a collection of interviews with eye-witnesses of the bombing of Hiroshima (primary sources) (1990 - 2006, Hiroshima Peace Cultural Center). See also Hiroshima and Nagasaki VIDEO (2015, Swedish Physicians against Nuclear Weapons et al.), Nagasaki: Survivors' Narratives and Kids Page: The Atomic Bombing and Nagasaki (2015, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum, Nagasaki City). Learn About Nuclear Weapons includes an explanation of how nuclear weapons work, and the history of their development, use, and consequences (Swedish Physicians against Nuclear Weapons; non-profit organization).
Holocaust Encyclopedia - A well-organized collection of illustrated encyclopedia articles on all aspects of the holocaust, plus a timeline, maps, and other resources for students (U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum). Additional materials may be found at the Holocaust Resource Center, which includes photos, diaries, letters, and other primary resources (YadVashem.org), and Holocaust Educational Resources for Students and Teachers (Remember.org). High school and up. The Holocaust Chronicle website contains the full text and images from the print edition of The Holocaust Chronicle, from the roots of the Holocaust to the aftermath. High school and up (Publications International, Ltd.; book published in 2000). See also Letters to Sala, below. Life After the Holocaust AUDIO is a multimedia oral history project documenting the experiences of six Holocaust survivors whose journeys brought them to the United States, and revealing the complexity of starting over (U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum).
Japanese Attacked Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 - A brief description of the event that prompted the U.S. to declare war on Japan (2009, Library of Congress).
Japanese-American Internment in World War II - See Dear Miss Breed and related links.
Kristallnacht ('Night of Broken Glass') VIDEO - Describes the violent anti-Jewish pogrom which occurred throughout Germany on November 9 and 10, 1938. Includes photos and a video interview with an eyewitness; click on the picture under the heading 'View Personal History' to see the video. (U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum)
Letters to Sala: A Young Woman's Life in Nazi Labor Camps [Archived page] - Illustrates the Holocaust through the experiences of one young woman. 'From her letters, we learn about friendship and love, Jewish life in occupied Poland, Nazi labor camps, the intensely human need to rebuild life after the catastrophe of war, and the ability of words to give and sustain life.' (2006; New York Public Library). See also The Story of Anne Frank, below.
The Marshall Plan: Selling Democracy - The post-World War II European Recovery Program (ERP), or Marshall Plan, was a massive aid program to help Europe recover from the devastation of World War II. This site describes the Marshall Plan as well as the films created to help sell the plan - and a vision of American-style prosperity - to the Europeans. (2004 - 2009; Schulberg Productions)
Nuremberg Trials (1945-49) VIDEO - 'In the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust, the world was faced with a challenge - how to seek justice for an almost unimaginable scale of criminal behavior. The International Military Tribunal (IMT) held at Nuremberg, Germany, attempted to broach this immense challenge on a legal basis.' (U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum). The original page is archived here (1995 - 2017; by Law Professor Douglas O. Linder, University of Missouri).
Story of Anne Frank INTERACTIVE - Learn about Anne Frank, is a Jewish girl who had to go into hiding during World War Two to avoid the Nazis. After her death Anne becomes world famous because of the diary she wrote while in hiding. The website includes a virtual tour of the Secret Annex where Anne Frank and her family hid from the Nazis (Anne Frank House Museum).
World War I Timeline - Lists the chief events of the War from 1914-1919, with photos; related pages include U.S. Entered World War One, April 6, 1917, a brief overview of how the war began and why the U.S. became a part of it, plus short articles on WWI Military Technology and The Lusitania Disaster (Library of Congress). See also The Lusitania (PBS; site includes advertisements). For another brief summary of the war, plus related textbook, documents, images, timeline, music and more, see Digital History: Overview of World War I AUDIO; use the tabs above the article to access the related materials (2014, University of Houston). First World War Stories UPDATED LINK! AUDIO VIDEO explore the war 'through the lives of those who experienced it both on the front line and at home,' with a fascinating assortment of images, letters, articles, audio, and more (2018, Imperial War Museum, UK). BBC Schools: World War One has a great collection of WWI learning materials for elementary through high school; audio & video may not play in the U.S. (British Broadcasting Corporation). The National World War I Museum website includes an Interactive Timeline of WWI. Raffael Scheck's virtual textbook on Germany and Europe from 1871 - 1945, described above, includes a detailed examination of The First World War, 1914-1918 and its aftermath; high school and up. The World War One Documents Archive is a comprehensive site offering text of primary documents including conventions, treaties, memorials & personal reminiscences, essays on a wide variety of special topics, plus images and links (2010, Brigham Young University). The Great War Interactive Timeline VIDEO includes original video footage, maps, photos and descriptions of events (American Battle Monuments Commission). 1917: Free History uses excerpts from letters, memoirs, diaries and other primary documents of the period in the form of a modern social network, with daily posts on what various people in Russia and other countries were thinking about and what happened to them in this eventful year (Pushkin House, London, at el.). Our World War I Webfinder provides some additional links (2014, South Plainfield Public Library).
World War II Museum AUDIO VIDEO - Includes a World War II History for students, with recommended books & websites, research starters & fact sheets, a companion site on the science & technology of WWII, and related online materials such as oral histories, essays, lesson plans, and videos (2017, National World War II Museum). WW2History.com AUDIO VIDEO is a multimedia resource on WW2 history offering videos, articles, timeline, and 'audio testimonies from those who experienced it' (2010 - 2016; by historian, author, and documentary filmmaker Laurence Rees; site includes advertisements). WW2 People's War [Archived page] is a large collection of personal memories and photos from World War Two from the British perspective (2003 - 2006, British Broadcasting Corporation). World War II Interactive Timeline VIDEO includes original video footage, maps, photos and descriptions of events (American Battle Monuments Commission).
Arms & Armor NEW! [Link opens a PDF] - Weapon or work of art, or both? For battle or just for show? For a soldier or a king? Discover fun facts about arms & armor, and use your imagination to design armor inspired by your favorites! (Metropolitan Museum)
Disasters - See South Plainfield Public Library's Weather & Disasters links. See also Secrets of the Dead, below, and Nova's Disasters Archive VIDEO INTERACTIVE; online video and interactives are located on separate pages. (2008 - 2018, PBS; site includes advertisements).
Famous Trials - Extensive information about dozens of famous trials through history, from the trial of Socrates in 399 B.C. to the Moussaoui trial of 2006. Includes chronologies, biographies, letters, images, court documents, essays, and related material; the original page is archived here. For high school and up (1995 - 2011; by Douglas O. Linder, University of Missouri Law Professor). See also Famous FBI Cases & Criminals for overviews of famous historical cases (mostly from the U.S.) involving terrorism, bank robberies, organized crime, violent crime, white collar crime, and espionage. Covers the Brinks Robbery, the Lindbergh Kidnapping, Al Capone, Bonnie & Clyde, Willie Sutton, the Unabomber, Enron, and many others (Federal Bureau of Investigation).
Fire & Ice: Hindenburg and Titanic VIDEO - An online exhibit examining two famous marvels of transportation that each met a tragic end. Includes a great collection of photos, menus, brochures, postcards, letters, maps, and videos. (2012, Smithsonian Institution)
Guns, Germs & Steel - 'Traces humanity's journey over the last 13,000 years - from the dawn of farming at the end of the last Ice Age to the realities of life in the twenty-first century,' exploring the ways in which physical geography as well as the distribution of commonplace things, such as wheat, cattle, and writing, may have shaped the course of global history. (2005, PBS; based on a Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Jared Diamond). Environmental History Resources VIDEO includes videos, essays, and other resources which explore the ways in which environmental changes, often the result of human actions, have caused historical trends; high school and up (2006 - 2015; Dr. Jan Oosthoek, an environmental historian based in Brisbane, Australia).
Industrial Revolution - See Industrial History in Europe, above.
Influenza Epidemic of 1918 - Primary documents and photos related to the deadly worldwide epidemic that attacked one-fifth of the world's population in 1918, killing an estimated 50 million people (National Archives). See also America during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic (Digital Public Library of America). Contagion has overview articles on a variety of historical epidemics, including the 1918 influenza epidemic, as well as the the Great Plague of London (1665), the Boston smallpox epidemic (1721), Tuberculosis in Europe and North America (1800-1922), Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia (1793), and others (Harvard University). High school and up.
League of Nations History - Examines events leading to the formation of the League of Nations, its political and technical activities, its ending, and how it led to the creation of the United Nations; use the left-hand menu to navigate. See also United Nations History. (United Nations)
Secrets of the Dead VIDEO - Investigates a variety of historic disasters and crimes, such as the Black Death, sinking of the Titanic, Salem Witch Trials, Great Fire of Rome, 1918 flu pandemic, burning of the Hindenburg, and many more. Includes background, clues & evidence, and interviews with experts. Choose a topic (Archaeology, Disease & Disaster, Historical Figures, Modern Mysteries, Notorious Killings, or Warfare) from the dropdown menu. For high school and up. (PBS; site includes advertisements)
Spanish-American War - See Spanish American War, above.
WTO History Project - Photographs, interviews, and other primary and secondary sources relating to the 1999 World Trade Organization protests in Seattle. (2004, University of Washington)
United Nations - See League of Nations History, above.