US flag U.S. History See also:
BIOGRAPHY
DINOSAURS, FOSSILS, & THE PREHISTORIC WORLD
DIVERSITY / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES
INDIGENOUS & NATIVE PEOPLES
LOCAL INFORMATION
SOCIAL STUDIES
STATES & COUNTRIES

EBSCO Explora
Facts on File
Salem History

Facts on FileFACTS ON FILE REFERENCE DATABASES: Login to FACTS ON FILE to access a great collection of history reference databases. The American History database now includes five new multicultural Topic Centers covering African-American, Arab-American, Asian-American, Jewish-American, and Native American History. The History Research Center provides access to all the FACTS ON FILE history databases with a single search, including American History (including American Women's History), African-American History, American Indian History, Ancient and Medieval History, and Modern World History. If you're using this resource at home, you'll have to login with your library card barcode to begin.

World Almanac for KidsWorld Almanac for Kids - Resources for homework, reports, and projects in a fun format from a trusted source; written for students in 4th - 8th grade. Includes information on American History, Ancient Civilizations, Latino-American History in the U.S., Native American Life, World History, and more (in TOPICS, under SOCIAL STUDIES). If you're using this resource at home, you'll have to enter your library card barcode to begin.

Salem HistorySALEM HISTORY: Searchable database offering the complete content of Salem Press's Decades in America (1950s - 1990s) reference series. Also includes Current Events through a Historical Lens. You can search the database by keyword or browse by category. If you're using SALEM HISTORY on your home computer, you'll have to enter your library card barcode to begin.

General U.S. History

See also:
African-American Experience
Immigrant Experience
Women's History
INDIGENOUS & NATIVE PEOPLES

Facts on File Salem History EBSCO Explora

Agricultural History - See Food & Farming Links.

America's Founding Documents - Text and background for the 'Charters of Freedom': the Declaration of Indepence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Includes documents, articles, biographies, and photos. A related page, Founders Online contains over 184,000 searchable, annotated primary documents and records to and from George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and others, showing 'firsthand the growth of democracy and the birth of the Republic' (National Archives & Records Administration). Our Documents provides historical background and text for key documents from pivotal moments in the course of American history or government, from the Lee Resolution of 1776 to the Voting Rights Act of 1965; future updates will include documents created after 1965 (National Archives & Records Administration). Primary Documents in American History includes important documents from 1775-1815 (The American Revolution and the New Nation), 1815-1860 (National Expansion and Reform), 1860-1877 (Civil War and Reconstruction), and 1878-1920 (Gilded Age and Progressive Era), with background information and related resources for each document (Library of Congress). Documents for the Study of American History [NOTE: Archived page; some media features do not work] includes letters, journals, speeches, proclamations, and many other primary documents from the 9th century to the 21st. Arranged by time period; expect broken links (2005 - 2010, by George Laughead; WWW Virtual Library / University of Kansas). American Culture E-Texts has dozens of online electronic texts for the study of American history and culture, including influential essays, novels, poetry, biography, slave narratives, and more; some include related background materials. High school and up. (University of Virginia).

American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith VIDEO - Explores the history of citizen participation, debate, and compromise from the nation's formation to the early 21st century, focussing on the changing political ideals & principles of the nation, citizenship in a pluralistic society, and political participation & engagement. (Smithsonian Institution)

American Experience VIDEO - A wealth of information on American history, including Presidents, biographies, war & politics, technology, popular culture, and the American landscape. Includes video, primary sources, timelines, articles, and other special features. You can search special features by topic, type, or collection; for middle school and high school students. There is also a separate page for Classroom Resources. (WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements)

The American Historian - Online magazine about American history, each issue focussing on a theme relevant to current events and concerns; high school and up. (Organization of American Historians)

American History Biographies - Biographies of historical and literary figures from John Adams to Robert Yates. (1994 - 2012, University of Groningen, Netherlands)

American Memory: U.S. History Primary Source Timeline - A user-friendly resource featuring selected primary sources on United States History, arranged by chronological period from the colonial era through 1968. The American Memory and other Library of Congress Digital Collections AUDIO VIDEO provide primary sources such as photographs, newspapers, oral histories, maps, and other materials on a variety of aspects of American history including African-Americans, Native Americans, women, Presidents, sports, advertising, war, religion, arts, and more; grade level varies. (Library of Congress)

American Presidents VIDEO - Pick a president from the dropdown menu to see basic biographical facts, portraits, and full-length videos from the American Presidents: Life Portraits series, covering the presidents, first ladies, and 'The Contenders - presidential candidates who lost, but changed history' (C-Span). American Presidency: A Glorious Burden UPDATED! provides a brief description for each of the presidents, with related info exploring the general evolution of the American presidency; all ages (Smithsonian Institution). See also Biographies of the First Ladies; all ages (2009, National First Ladies Library). C-Span offers a video series on First Ladies: Influence & Image VIDEO, for high school and up (2014). College or advanced high school students will find more information on the Presidents at American President: An Online Reference Resource AUDIO VIDEO and the related section of In-Depth Exhibits VIDEO on a wide range of topics related to the presidents and their eras & legacies (Miller Center, University of Virginia). From Revolution to Reconstruction and beyond has major speeches, bios, and other documents of the Presidents from George Washington to Barack Obama (University of Groningen, Netherlands). The American Presidency Project VIDEO is a searchable database of Presidential messages, speeches, papers, and other documents, as well as YouTube-hosted videos of recent presidents (University of California). Presidential Libraries offers documents and and other historical materials, covering Herbert Hoover through Donald Trump; see also Our Presidents VIDEO (National Archives & Records Administration), and White House Tapes, below.

American Yawp - A collaboratively-built online American history textbook designed for college-level history courses, written by scholars, for scholars. Offering a coherent and accessible narrative from all the best of recent historical scholarship, it incorporates transnational perspectives, integrates diverse voices, recovers narratives of resistance, and explores the complex process of cultural creation. Chapters are arranged chronologically; updated annually. (Edited by Joseph Locke, University of Houston, and Ben Wright, University of Texas)

Americans At War: Price of Freedom [Archived page] - This exhibit 'examines how wars have shaped the nations history and transformed American society,' from the War of Independence to the Iraq war (2003). Includes Learning Resources UPDATED LINK! (Smithsonian Institution). In Four Minutes VIDEO has short, informative videos on various aspects of the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and Civil War. Subjects range from a description of notable generals, to an explanation of artillery, to a description of the significance of the Western Theater, or Southern Campaign. (American Battlefield Trust). See also Veterans' Stories, below.

America's Story AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Entertaining tales of America's past. 'Here, you can discover what Abraham Lincoln had in his pockets on the night he was assassinated... Or you can read about other 'Amazing Americans' such as Buffalo Bill Cody and his 'Wild West' show; the heroism of Harriet Tubman, who helped many slaves escape bondage; the music of jazz great Duke Ellington; or the inventions of Thomas Edison (You will even be able to see his first motion picture!)'. Includes a useful Jump Back in Time timeline. (2009, Library of Congress)

Backstory Radio AUDIO [Archived page; BackStory ended production in June 2020] - 'A weekly podcast that uses current events in America to take a deep dive into our past. Hosted by noted U.S. historians, each episode provides listeners with different perspectives on a particular theme or subject - giving you all sides to the story and then some.' (Virginia Foundation for the Humanities). In the Past Lane [Archived page; last show posted in July 2020] AUDIO is another excellent podcast on American History (Dr. Edward T. O'Donnell, Holy Cross College).

Biography of America [Archived page] VIDEO - A video series and companion website on the forces that have shaped America. 'First-person narratives, photos, film footage, and documents reveal the human side of American history — how historical figures affected events, and the impact of these events on citizens' lives.' 26 half-hour videos for high school and up. (2000; WGBH, Annenberg Media et al.)

Digital History AUDIO VIDEO - A mega-site covering the entire span of American history from pre-European culture to the present. Includes an online textbook, primary documents, ethnic histories, biographies, maps, speeches, images, multimedia content, interactive timeline, and just about anything else you can think of; for all ages. Digital History Explorations VIDEO are designed to give students the opportunity to do history: to conduct research, analyze primary sources, and draw their own conclusions; includes teacher resources for each topic. (University of Houston et al.)

Digital Public Library of America: Exhibitions NEW! - Online exhibits on a wide range of topics, featuring stories of national significance drawn from primary source materials in libraries, archives, and museums across the United States. DPLA's Primary Source Sets explore topics in history, literature, and culture developed by educators, with teaching guides for class use.

Documents for the Study of American History - See America's Founding Documents and related links, above

Eyewitness - Primary materials including first-person accounts, documents and images. Covers a variety of events in the U.S. and abroad, including the Fall of the Bastille in 1789, the American Revolution, the civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, the assassinations of Abraham Lincoln & John F. Kennedy, the meeting of Truman and Stalin, the re-unification of Germany, and more. High school and up. (National Archives)

Facing Freedom - 'Explores conflicts over freedom through four themes which highlight moments when Americans have struggled over the meaning of freedom.' Looks at labor problems, the Civil War & slavery, American Indian Rights, Japanese Internment, school segregation, and votes for women. Includes primary and secondary sources, including photographs, objects, and documents. For middle school and high school. (2013, Chicago History Museum)

Fake News (History of) - See Fake News links.

Fast Facts from U.S. History - A collection of brief historical facts from 1790 to 2010, in culture, science & technology, politics, 'firsts', disasters, and more; arranged by decades. (U.S. Census Bureau).

First Measured Century Timeline - An interactive timeline of U.S. history from 1870-2000, with interviews, analyses of statistical data and trends on dozens of subjects. High school and up (PBS).

Food & Farming History - Our selected links to information about the history of food and agriculture in the U.S. and the world. (South Plainfield Public Library).

Freedom: A History of US [NOTE: Archived page; videos no longer work] - An exploration of Americans' quest for freedom, from the struggle for independence through the beginnings of the 21st century (2002, Picture History and Educational Broadcasting Corporation [PBS]; site includes advertisements).

Indigenous & Native Peoples Links - Our selected links to information about Native Americans and other native peoples. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Interactive Map of U.S. History [Archived page] INTERACTIVE - 'Discover how the continent was irrevocably changed by European colonization, the events that caused the wholesale displacement and decimation of the land's original inhabitants, and how the 50 states came to be formed.' High school and up.(Annenberg Media). Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States INTERACTIVE reproduces one of the greatest historical atlases, first published in 1932, now digitally enhanced with twenty-first century functionality; for advanced high school and college students (University of Richmond). For more maps and related resources, see STATES & COUNTRIES.

Labor History VIDEO - A timeline of labor union history in the U.S., with biographies of prominent labor leaders of the past, descriptions of key events in labor history, and more (AFL-CIO, a federation of 57 national and international labor unions). The Way We Were: The Changing Geography of US Manufacturing shows how employment in agriculture, manufacturing, and other industries shifted across America from 1940 to 2016; high school and up (Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce). The Way We Worked VIDEO is a collection of photographs documenting American workers and their work, from the mid 19th to the late 20th centuries. These historical photographs show different types of work, work clothing, locales, working conditions, and workplace conflict. Includes a short introductory video (National Archives & Records Administration).

National Archives: American History Reference - Selected links to research tools covering many topics of historical relevance, such as biography, black history, exploration, the Holocaust, Native Americans, space exploration, war crimes, women, and more. Also includes a selection of links to additional resources in American History. High school and up. (National Archives and Records Administration)

National Museum of American History INTERACTIVE - More than 50 online exhibits covering a wide range of American history topics, including presidents, civil rights movements, music, war, science, technology, and inventions, and others. Smithsonian's History Explorer VIDEO INTERACTIVE is a collection of 'innovative, standards-based online resources for teaching and learning American history', searchable by subject, grade level, resource type, and historical era. With Our Story: Activities you can experience history first-hand through stories, activities, books, and more. For K-12 students & teachers (Smithsonian Institution). See also Online American History Exhibits [Archived page, expect broken links] (National Archives & Records Administration).

Picturing U.S. History VIDEO - Photos and other images that illuminate American history, with related background essays, video lectures, and classroom suggestions. Topics covered include Race & Slavery, Colonial America, Jacksonian America, and the American West. High school and up. (City University of New York)

Plain Talk History VIDEO - Learning modules aimed at 'making difficult histories accessible.' Currently available materials focus on the forced 'relocation' of Japanese Americans during WWII; the rise of lynching in the USA from 1848-1964, documented by sociologist Monroe Work and his wife Florence (in English & Spanish); and the letter of a freed slave to his former master after the Civil War. Additional modules will be posted in the future. (A collaborative project overseen by a scholarly advisory board)

Talking History [Archived page] AUDIO - An interesting collection of radio programs and shorter audio clips on a wide assortment of topics in history, mostly American history. There is no subject index, but you can search the collection by keyword. NOTE: Talking History ceased over-the-air broadcasting as of May 17, 2016. (State University of New York, Albany; site includes advertisements)

Teaching History - U.S. history education resources for teachers and students, K-12. Includes website reviews, quizzes, links, 'Ask a Historian' feature, and (at the bottom of the page) quick links for elementary, middle, and high school teachers. (National History Education Clearinghouse, Center for History & New Media, et al.)

Teaching with Historic Places - Maps, images, and background readings exploring more than 25 themes in (mostly American) history, covering various events and the sites associated with them. Includes African American history, Women's history, Hispanic heritage, Asian Pacific heritage, American Indian history, Civil War, World War II, and more. See also Discover History pages. (National Park Service)

Transportation: America on the Move INTERACTIVE - 'Transportation transformed America. Choose from three interconnected routes to explore how transportation shaped our lives, landscapes, culture, and communities.' Covers automobiles, bicycles, railroads, steamships, streetcars, air travel, and more; includes additional learning resources. (Smithsonian Institution)

Turns of the Centuries - Explore the periods of 1680-1720, 1780-1820, and 1880-1920 in New England history. For each era, you can learn about Family Life, Native Americans, African Americans, Newcomers, and the Land. (2001 - 2011, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield, Massachusetts)

U.S. Congress: Breaking Barriers - Hundreds of online primary sources documenting the role of Congress in breaking economic, political, social, scientific and technological barriers, from the colonial era to the 20th century (U.S. Capitol Visitor Center). See also Homework Links: GOVERNMENT & POLITICS.

U.S. Diplomatic Milestones [Archived page] - Short essays on many important events in U.S. diplomatic history between 1750 and 2000. Arranged by time period. High school and up. (U.S. State Department)

USA: Outline of American History - Good, well-organized essays on topics of each period from pre-Colonial America through 2004; few links. Also offers speeches, bios, and other documents of the Presidents from Washington to Obama (University of Groningen, Netherlands). For more on U.S. Presidents, as well as First Ladies, see American Presidents and related links.

Veterans' Stories AUDIO VIDEO - This site offers interviews with U.S. veterans of World War II and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. You can also access stories by themes such as courage, buddies, patriotism, and POWs, as well as African-American Pioneers, African-Americans: The Next Generation, Asian Pacific Americans, Hispanic Americans (and more Hispanic American Veterans), Native Americans, and Women (2009 - 2021, Library of Congress). See also From the Home Front and the Front Lines for letters, photos, diaries, and related documents from World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the 1991 Persian Gulf War (2010, Library of Congress), and Veterans' Oral Histories VIDEO, covering World War II through today (American Veterans Center). U.S. Army Heritage VIDEO includes features commemorating the service of African Americans, Asians Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and women in the U.S. Army. U. S. Navy Diversity includes articles, photos, and oral histories from the early 19th century through the present on African Americans, Asians Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, women and LGBT in the U. S. Navy. Voces Oral History Project documents the contributions of U.S. Latinos and Latinas of the WWII, Korean War and Vietnam War generations, including military service and political & civic engagement. The Betty H. Carter Women Veterans Historical Project AUDIO documents the contributions of women in the military and related service organizations since World War I, with photographs, letters, diaries, scrapbooks, oral histories, and other primary sources (University of North Carolina). For more on women's military service, see Women Airforce Service Pilots of World War II: WASP History (Texas Woman's University), and Wings Across America AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE (Nancy Parrish and Baylor University). Code Girls' Story (National Archives & Records Administration) and Code Girls videos VIDEO (author Liz Mundy) tell the story of the young American women who cracked key Axis codes, helping to secure Allied victory. For more on LGBTQI in the military, see the Among Dreams Archive (Among Dreams Project & Chelsea Rae Klein). See also Ethnicity, Race, and the Military in the Civil War, below, Tuskegee Airmen, And There Were Women & Tuskegee Army Nurses and related links, below, and Native Americans and the U.S. Military. For information on conscientious objectors in WWII & earlier wars, see Civilian Public Service, below.

Web Rangers Activities - A collection of online activities on historical and environmental topics; for elementary & middle school students. (National Park Service)

We're History - Blog-style articles on how America became what it is today, with a 'Behind the News' feature examining current issues in a historical context. (Co-edited by Professor Heather Cox Richardson, Boston College, and Professor Joshua D. Rothman, University of Alabama)

Whaling: Laura Jernegan, Girl on a Whaleship INTERACTIVE - 'In October, 1868, Laura Jernegan, a six year old girl from Edgartown, Massachusetts set out on a three year whaling voyage with her father, mother, brother and the ship's crew to the whaling grounds of the Pacific Ocean. This website tells the story of Laura Jernegan and the journal she kept on her voyage. It also tells the adventurous history of whaling. Middle school and up. (2010, Martha's Vineyard Museum)

What It Means to Be American - A collection of articles that 'explore big, visceral questions about how our nation's past can help us understand its present and imagine its future.' Covers a wide range of topics from the colonial period to the present. (Smithsonian and Arizona State University)

Within These Walls - Tells the stories of five families who lived in a single house over two centuries (1757-1945), and made history in their kitchens and parlors through everyday choices and personal acts of courage and sacrifice. (Smithsonian Institution)

Women's History Links - Our selected links to websites on women's history in the U.S. and throughout the world. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Work & Workers - See Labor History links.

New Jersey History

See LOCAL INFORMATION for links on New Jersey History and related topics.

Colonial through Early 19th Century America

See also:
INDIGENOUS & NATIVE PEOPLES
Exploration & Conquest
Slavery
Women's History
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History

Facts on File EBSCO Explora

American History Myths Debunked - 'Every day, stories about people or objects are told in museums that are not true. Some are outright fabrications. Others contain a kernel of truth that has been embellished over the years.' This site debunks (or confirms) common myths about American history, mostly covering the colonial period. (By historian / author Mary Miley Theobald; site includes advertisements)

American Revolution - An overview of the the American Revolution, with an online textbook, timeline, documents, and more. (Digital History, University of Houston)

Benjamin Franklin FAQ - Answers to some common questions about Franklin (2006, Franklin Institute). Benjamin Franklin: In His Own Words reviews Franklin's public, professional, and scientific achievements - as a printer & writer, an inventor & scientist, and a politician & statesman. Includes important primary sources such as documents, letters, books, broadsides, and cartoons (2006, Library of Congress). See also Benjamin Franklin Timeline UPDATED LINK! VIDEO and related resources (2002, Twin Cities Public Television Inc.; site includes advertisements), and Founders Online, below.

Colonial Williamsburg AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - A look at different aspects of life in Colonial times, such as historic trades, slavery, the American Revolution, and more, with many videos, exhibits & interactives, podcast archive (2005 - 2017), and activities you can do at home. The original site, Life in 18th Century America [Archived pages; media features do not work] offers some additional materials.

Coming of the American Revolution - Essays on 15 topics, such as the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party and the Battle of Bunker Hill, examine events leading up to the American Revolution; supplemented by letters, diary entries, maps, portraits, news accounts and other primary sources. High school and up. (2008, Massachusetts Historical Society)

Deerfield Raid, 1704 AUDIO - 'In the pre-dawn hours of February 29, 1704, a force of about 300 French and Native allies launched a daring raid on the English settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts... Was this dramatic pre-dawn assault in contested lands an unprovoked, brutal attack on an innocent village of English settlers? Was it a justified military action against a stockaded settlement in a Native homeland? Or was it something else? Explore this website and hear all sides of the story — then you decide.' Includes images, biographies, artifacts & documents, maps, timeline, and period music. Middle and high school students. (2004, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association / Memorial Hall Museum, Deerfield, MA)

Founders Online - Correspondence and other writings of George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams (and family), Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. Over 184,000 searchable, annotated documents showing 'firsthand the growth of democracy and the birth of the Republic.' High school and up (Founding Fathers Papers projects, National Archives). See also Benjamin Franklin links, George Washington links, and Jefferson links, and America's Founding Documents.

George Washington VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Explores the life and influence of George Washington. Includes a timeline, digital encyclopedia, and other resources (Mount Vernon Ladies Association). See also George Washington's Life (A Chronology) (Smithsonian), and Founders Online, above.

Indian Converts - See Indian Converts on the Indigenous / Native Peoples page.

Indians - See Indigenous / Native Peoples page.

Jefferson Encyclopedia - 'Trustworthy information on Thomas Jefferson and his world by Monticello researchers and respected Jefferson scholars.' Arrranged by topic; high school and up. Use the main menu to access many additional resources about Jefferson, Monticello House & Gardens, and Plantation & Slavery; middle school and up (Thomas Jefferson Foundation). See also Founders Online, above.

John Smith's Voyage [Archived page] - In 1608, Captain John Smith and fourteen other English colonists set out from Jamestown by boat to explore and map the Chesapeake Bay, observing the Chesapeake's vibrant ecosystem and a multitude of American Indian cultures thriving along its shores. This website offers an in-depth account of their historic voyage, Smith's map and journals, and background on a 2007 expedition to re-trace Smith's trip. High school and up. (2008, Sultana Projects)

Life in 18th Century America - See Colonial Williamsburg, above.

Native Americans - See the Indigenous / Native Peoples page.

New York City in Early America: A Guided Tour [Click on 'START TOUR', on the right side below the menu to begin] - A brief overview of the history of New York City during the colonial and revolutionary periods. Each page displays a relevant primary document. Includes additional Teaching & Learning Resources. (2007 - 2013, New York University Libraries et al.)

Nullification Crisis - 'The crisis over the Tariff of 1828 continued into the 1830s and highlighted one of the currents of democracy in the Age of Jackson: namely, that many southerners believed a democratic majority could be harmful to their interests. These southerners saw themselves as an embattled minority and claimed the right of states to nullify federal laws that appeared to threaten state sovereignty. Another undercurrent was the resentment and anger of the majority against symbols of elite privilege, especially powerful financial institutions like the Second Bank of the United States.' This page explains the factors that contributed to the Nullification Crisis and the rise of the Whig Party (2014; part of OpenStax Textbook on U.S. History). See also The Crisis of 1833: Tariffs and Nullification (Digital History).

Shays' Rebellion AUDIO INTERACTIVE - 'Only three years after the American Revolution ended, thousands of Massachusetts citizens took up arms against their new state government. This site tells the story of Shays' Rebellion, and a crucial period in our nation's founding when the survival of the republican experiment in government was neither destined nor assured.' Includes images, biographies, artifacts & documents, maps, timeline, and period music. High school and up (2008, Springfield Technical Community College and Memorial Hall Museum). See also Brothers-In-Arms AUDIO (2016, Backstory Radio, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities; hosted on SoundCloud).

Trail of Tears - See Cherokee Removal on the Indigenous / Native Peoples page.

War of 1812 - A collection of brief stories and biographical sketches related to the War of 1812, with images and links to many additional resources (National Park Service). The War of 1812: Which One Was That? AUDIO is a radio program that 'sets out to answer the most fundamental questions about the War of 1812: What did we win, what did we lose, and why should we care?' (2014, Backstory Radio; Virginia Foundation for the Humanities).

Witchcraft in Salem Village - Original documents, maps, and other information (primary sources) about the Salem Witch Trials of 1692; start with the Overview of the Salem Witch Trials (2002 by Benjamin Ray and University of Virginia). See also Salem Witchcraft (2011, Richard B. Latner, Emeritus Professor of History, Tulane University).

You Be the Historian INTERACTIVE - 'Historians study the everyday lives of people who lived in the past by looking at clues: the objects and documents that people left behind and that have somehow survived.' View the objects and documents on the website and 'see if you can figure out what life was like 200 years ago for Thomas and Elizabeth Springer's family in New Castle, Delaware.' Middle school. (2000 - 2006, Smithsonian Institution)

Young American Republic - A collection of online exhibits examining numerous events and personalities from the period between 1820-1850, including the Missouri Compromise, Indian Removal Act, California Gold Rush, Manifest Destiny, Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention, Abolitionist movement, and more. (2018 - 2019, Michigan State University; class project)

Westward Expansion

See also:
Later 19th Century
INDIGENOUS & NATIVE PEOPLES
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History

Facts on File EBSCO Explora

Buffalo Soldiers - See Buffalo Soldiers: African Americans in the Frontier Army, below.

Civil War and Westward Expansion - An essay examining the war's effect on western settlement and native tribes (National Park Service).

Exploration and Expansion - Links to resources documenting explorers of the North American continent, government & railroad surveys, and Westward Expansion. (2021, National Archives & Records Administration)

Gold Rush, Statehood, and the Western Movement - An overview of the discovery of gold in California in 1848 and its subsequent impacts, plus online exhibits featuring brief overviews, photos and primary documents on six themes (Murder & Mayhem, Disasters, Everyday Life & People, Environmental Impact, Growth of Cities, and Diversity in the Changing State); high school and up (University of California). See also All That Glitters? Legacies of the California Gold Rush AUDIO (Backstory Radio).

Lewis & Clark - Includes a synopsis of the expedition from preparation through return, with selections from the journals, photographs, maps, animated graphics, and other related materials (Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation). Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition AUDIO offers complete text of the journals, with maps and audio content (University of Nebraska). See also The Expedition's Impact on Indigenous Americans NEW! (National Park Service).

The West VIDEO - Video clips and classroom resources related to a PBS documentary film series 'chronicling the turbulent history of the American West.' There is also a page of primary documents, including memoirs, journals, letters, reports and images. (PBS, Florentine Films and WETA)

Railroads - See Railroads and the Making of Modern America and related links.

U.S. - Mexico War - See U.S. - Mexico War, 1846-1848: A Continent Divided.

Civil War

See also:
African-American Experience
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History

Facts on File EBSCO Explora

African-American Experience - Includes links on slavery and other topics relevant to the Civil War. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Boston Abolitionists - In the decades leading to the Civil War, Boston became a center of the national antislavery movement. This website includes important manuscripts, photographs and artifacts related to the abolitionist movement in Boston, as well as The Case for Ending Slavery, offering 'curricular resources and more than 50 primary sources that reveal how slavery, and debates about slavery, contributed to the formation of the United States.' (2013, Massachusetts Historical Society)

Civil War, 150 Years Later AUDIO - A special radio series on the war's causes and consequences; two hour-long episodes from Backstory Radio: The Road to War and Why They Fought. (2011, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities)

Civil War and the West - See Civil War and Westward Expansion, above.

Civil War Battles - Brief summaries of two dozen campaigns of the United States Army, from Fort Sumter in 1861 to Appomattox in 1865. Arranged in a timeline format. (U.S. Army Center of Military History)

Civil War Classroom Resources AUDIO - A collection of downloadable teacher and student materials on topics related to the Civil War, including Abraham Lincoln, African American Life in the Nineteenth Century, Black Soldiers, and more (2012, Chicago History Museum). See also American Civil War Museum: Educational Resources.

Civil War in Art - Explores 'a wide range of images and objects that depict or relate to the most deadly war in the history of the United States... People living through the Civil War valued works of art as ways to understand the conflict, celebrate victories and heroes, and grieve their dead and losses. Today, as the works of art collected here show so movingly, these pieces continue to remind us of the power and significance of this momentous time in American history.' (2012 - 2013, Terra Foundation for American Art, Art Institute of Chicago, et al.)

Civil War Overview - A brief summary of the Civil War's major causes, events, and outcomes (2016, Louisiana State University, Leah W. Jewett et al.). See also Civil War Facts NEW! and Civil War Timeline (National Park Service).

Civil War Stories - Illustrates the social, economic, political, and military aspects of the Civil War by recounting the stories of specific people, places and events (National Park Service).

Diary of a Civil War Nurse INTERACTIVE - The diaries and letters of Amanda Akin, who served as a nurse at Armory Square Hospital in Washington, D.C. for 15 months during the war, providing a glimpse into the lives of those who served and a touching record of the challenges of hospital life. Includes text, interactive primary documents, maps, and images. (2011, Smithsonian)

Discovering the Civil War VIDEO - This online exhibit takes 'a fresh look at the Civil War through little-known stories, seldom-seen documents, and unusual perspectives.' Includes articles, primary documents, & other resources, with suggestions for classroom study. (2008 - 2011, National Archives & Records Administration)

Ethnicity, Race, and the Military in the Civil War - Learn about the important role that racial and ethnic groups - including African American, Hispanic, and Irish soldiers - played in both armies during the Civil War (National Park Service). See also African-American Experience, Veterans' Stories, and Irish in the American Civil War, below, and Native Americans and the U.S. Military.

First Person Narratives of the South - Online texts (primary sources) from the Civil War and later. Includes accounts by soldiers and slaves. Part of Documenting the American South, a large collection of primary sources on southern history covering the period before the Civil War as well as the more recent past (2004, University of North Carolina). See also Slavery links, below.

Hearts at Home: Southern Women in the Civil War - 'Through letters and diaries, photographs, newspaper accounts, and personal mementos, Hearts at Home examines different aspects of southern women's experiences at home and on the battlefield during the Civil War.' (1997, University of Virginia)

Irish in the American Civil War - 'In 1860 there were 1.6 million Irish-born people living in the United States... During the war, at least 150,000 Irish-born fought for the Union, 20,000 for the Confederacy.' This blog explores Irish involvement in the Civil War (2015 - 2021; by military archaeologist Damian Shiels et al.). See also Irish Soldiers in the Union Army (National Park Service).

John Brown's Raid VIDEO - 'In October 1859, John Brown and twenty-one followers gained armed possession of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Their intent was to confiscate rifles stored there and with those weapons initiate a massive slave insurrection that would spread throughout the South and eventually free all of the nation's four million slaves.' Learn more about the raid and its aftermath on this website. (2010 - 2011, Virginia Historical Society)

Railroads - See Railroads and the Making of Modern America and related links.

Reconstruction - See Later 19th Century links.

Torn in Two - Maps, photographs, prints, diaries, songs and letters from before, during, and after the Civil War help illuminate some of the people & places of the era in this multimedia tour. (2011, Boston Public Library)

Trigger Events of the Civil War VIDEO - A timeline of the events that led to the Civil War from the beginnings of slavery to the Battle of Fort Sumter, with links to additional information on each topic (American Battlefield Trust).

Underground Railroad - See Underground Railroad links, below.

Valley of the Shadow - Details life in two American towns, one in the North and one in the South, during the Civil War era. Includes letters, diaries, newspapers, maps and images. (1993-2007, Edward L. Ayers, University of Virginia)

Later 19th Century
(Reconstruction, Gilded Age, Progressive Era, etc.)

See also:
Jim Crow & Civil Rights
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History

Facts on File EBSCO Explora

Age of Imperialism - 'During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe. That pivotal era in the history of our nation is the subject of this on-line history.' Covers Expansion in the Pacific, the Spanish-American War, the Boxer Rebellion, the Panama Canal, and U.S. Intervention in Latin America. Includes images, lesson plan, and bibliography (2013, Small Planet Communications, Inc.; educational publisher & development service). American Empire 'explores the origins, development, and eventual fall of the American empire... It maps the diverse and rocky terrain of the American empire to show how it informs contemporary conversations on heritage, citizenship, racism, and globalization' (2017, Digital Public Library of America). Some other relevant sites on Puerto Rico, Panama, Mexico, and the Spanish-American War are listed among our Latin America links.

Gilded Age - An overview of the late 19th century period often called 'the Gilded Age', plus related documents, timeline, bios, media, and more (part of Digital History). In The Past Lane offers an informative podcast series, What Was The Gilded Age? Part 1, Part 2, & Part 3 AUDIO, and The Remaking of America during Reconstruction & The Gilded Age AUDIO (by historian Edward T. O'Donnell).

Labor - See Labor History links.

Progressive Era - A brief summary of the era, with links to additional resources (2011, Virginia Commonwealth University). See also Digital History: Progressive Era (part of Digital History). Children in Progressive-Era America explores the lives of children during the Progressive Era of the 1890s through 1920s, including child labor, the growing child welfare movement, and further changes in the lives of American children and teens after World War II. Includes photos and other primary sources; high school and up (2015, Digital Public Library of America). See also Progressive Era to New Era, below.

Railroads and the Making of Modern America - Looks at various episodes in U.S. History 'where technology and social change correlate.' Covers topics such as Slavery & Southern Railroads, Railroad Work & Workers, Civil War & Strategy, The Great Railway Strike of 1877, Politics & Corruption, The Origins of Segregation, and more. Each topic provides a brief summary plus related documents - personal letters, diaries, newspaper articles, images, and others. High school and up (William G. Thomas, III et al.; University of Nebraska). See also Building the First Transcontinental Railroad (Digital Public Library of America) and Transcontinental Railroad: Chinese Railroad Workers (Stanford University). For more on the role of transportation in American history, see Transportation: America on the Move.

Reconstruction: People & Politics after the Civil War - 'This exhibit examines one of the most turbulent and controversial eras in American history. It presents an up-to-date portrait of a period whose unrealized goals of economic and racial justice still confront our society' (2003; part of Digital History). See also A More Perfect Union? The Reconstruction Era AUDIO & How Reconstruction Transformed the Constitution AUDIO (2018 - 19, Backstory Radio), Reconstruction (National Park Service) and The Remaking of America during Reconstruction & The Gilded Age, above. Reconstruction in 4 Minutes VIDEO is a short video on the difficulties that a divided nation faced after the conclusion of the Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Civil War Trust; non-profit organization).

Social Darwinism and the Poor - Explains how British biologist Charles Darwin's theories about the evolution of life forms were appropriated by journalists, academics, and social reformers to explain trends in social and economic life in the late 19th and early 20th century. 'Social Darwinism,' as it came to be known, served the purposes of both liberals and conservatives. (Peter Dobkin Hall, City University of New York; Social Welfare History Project, Virginia Commonwealth University)

Work & Workers - See Labor History links.

20th & 21st Centuries

See also:
African-American Experience
Immigrant Experience
Later 19th Century
Vietnam War
Women's History
World Wars I and II
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History

Salem History Facts on File EBSCO Explora

American Advertising History [Archived page] - 'This guide offers an overview of advertisements as historical sources and how historians use them, a brief history of advertising, questions to ask when interpreting ads as historical evidence, an annotated bibliography, and a guide to finding advertisements online' (2003, by history professor Daniel Pope; part of History Matters, CUNY and George Mason University). The Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850 - 1920 presents images and information relating to the early history of advertising in the United States. Two related pages, Ad Views VIDEO and Ad Access contain thousands of vintage television commercials from the 1950s to the 1980s and print ads from 1911 to 1955 (Duke University).

Atomic Archive VIDEO - 'Explores the complex history surrounding the invention of the atomic bomb - a crucial turning point for all mankind.' Includes original texts, eyewitness accounts, photographs, videos and full color maps (1998 - 2020, AJ Software & Multimedia, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation; site includes advertisements). Atomic Energy & Nuclear History 'traces the development of the atomic age from the discovery of radioactivity in the late 1800s to the close of the Cold War near the end of the twentieth century... [and] discusses the scientific, political and cultural ramifications of nuclear energy.' Includes primary sources; high school and up (Oregon State University Libraries). For more on nuclear weapons policy, nuclear crises, treaties, and related topics, see the National Security Archive's Nuclear Vault; high school and up (1995 - 2020, George Washington University). African-Americans and the Manhattan Project NEW! AUDIO VIDEO examines discrimination faced by tens of thousands of African-Americans who worked on the Manhattan Project around the country, and the thriving communities they built; Hanford's Environmental Legacy NEW! VIDEO explores the environmental impact of plutonium production for the atomic bombs in Hanford, WA, including long-term radioactive and chemical contamination, and its effect on the Native Americans and other local populations (Atomic Heritage Foundation). Voices of the Manhattan Project NEW! AUDIO VIDEO has hundreds of audio/visual interviews with Manhattan Project workers and their families, interviews with some of the men who flew on the atomic bombing missions, interviews with atomic bomb survivors, and more; arranged by subject (Atomic Heritage Foundation and Los Alamos Historical Society). Nuke Pop examines how the atomic bomb was reflected in popular culture of the post-war era, with lots of images from comics, magazines, and other primary sources. High school and up (2016, Paul Brians, Professor of English, Washington State University). The Bomb for My Pillow is one man's reminiscence of 'growing up in the shadow of nuclear annihilation' (1980 - 2003 by Gregg Nathan Ainsworth and Betty de Losada). See also Nuclear Weapons, Cold War links, below, and Hiroshima: Ground Zero and related links.

Automobile in American Life & Society - Explores the automobile's impact on American life. The site is divided into five sections: Design, Environment, Gender, Labor, and Race. Includes essays, archival materials from the Henry Ford collection & other depositories, plus classroom resources for students and teachers. Middle school and up (2004 - 2010, University of Michigan). See also Transportation: America on the Move.

Building the Suburban Dream - Text and images chronicle the construction, marketing, and lifestyle of Levittown, Pennsylvania, a housing development which represented the dream of suburban life in the 1950s (2003, State Museum of Pennsylvania). See also America on the Move: City & Suburb (Smithsonian Institution; part of Transportation: America on the Move exhibit).

Civil Rights Movement - See African-American Experience, below.

Civilian Public Service - This site tells the story of nearly 12,000 conscientious objectors (citizens who resist compulsory military service for religious or ethical reasons) who chose Civilian Public Service rather than military service in World War II. Also includes background on conscientious objectors in earlier wars. (Mennonite Central Committee et al.)

Cold War: A Brief History - Explores the major events of this period, including the development of the hydrogen bomb, the nuclear arms race, détente, nuclear proliferation, and the nuclear world after the end of the Cold War (part of Atomic Archive; site includes advertisements). See also Atomic Archive & related links, above, and Cuban Missile Crisis, below.

Conversations with America AUDIO - 'Man-on-the-street' interviews recorded by Studs Terkel over several decades, covering the Great Depression, World War II, race relations, and more. Choose a section, then scroll down to get to the recordings. High school and up. (2002, Chicago Historical Society et al.)

Cuban Missile Crisis: Armageddon Letters - 'In October 1962, human civilization came close to being destroyed. During the Cuban missile crisis... Armageddon might have occurred if leaders in Washington and Moscow hadn't stopped in their tracks, turned around 180 degrees and raced away from the brink in a panic at the foreshadowed doomsday.' This site presents the events of the Cuban missile crisis in the form of a graphic novel. For high school students (2012, Professor James Blight et al., Balsillie School of International Affairs). See also World on the Brink (John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum), To the Brink videos VIDEO (Archives Foundation; videos hosted on YouTube), JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis (University of Virginia), Atomic Archive, above, and Cold War, above.

Days of Infamy AUDIO - 'Within the living memory of Americans are two deadly surprise attacks against the United States: Japan's assault on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Both times, the Library of Congress sent people out to record the voices of ordinary Americans as they reacted to a changed world.' Includes audio of radio show (other audio clips may not play) and slideshows (2002, American Radio Works; site includes advertisements). See also Attack on Pearl Harbor (National Geographic Kids), Remembering Pearl Harbor VIDEO (2020, U.S. National Archives), and Pearl Harbor Day: Websites (2016 - 2021, National Park College). After the Day of Infamy AUDIO presents 'man-on-the-street' reactions of ordinary Americans to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war by the United States, with 'a wide diversity of opinion concerning the war and other social and political issues of the day, such as racial prejudice and labor disputes. The result is a portrait of everyday life in America as the United States entered World War II' (2003, Library of Congress). See also September 11, 2001, below.

Eisenhower Presidental Library (1950s) - Offers brief overviews plus related primary documents for a number of important subjects from the 1950s and WWI & WWII, including various aspects of the Civil Rights struggle, Korean War, Interstate Highway System, McCarthyism, Sputnik & the Space Race, Atoms for Peace, Rosenberg Trial, Salk Polio Vaccine, U-2 Spy Plane Incident, D-Day, The Invasion of Normandy, Holocaust, Jacqueline Cochran & the Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs), Women in the 1950s, and more. See also The Age of Eisenhower VIDEO (2018 - 2020, Miller Center, University of Virginia).

Financial Crisis of 2007-08; global economics NEW! - Explains the causes & impacts of the economic crash of 2007 - 08 (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.; site includes advertisements). See also Financial Crisis of 2008 NEW! (University of Illinois). High school and up. For the financial crash of 1929, see Wall Street Crash (1929), below.

Great Depression & New Deal - Answers basic questions about the Great Depression, such as What was the Great Depression? How high was unemployment during the Great Depression? What was FDR's program to end the Great Depression? Did the New Deal end the Great Depression? and more. High school and up (Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum). The Living New Deal explains what the New Deal was, with a timeline of New Deal legislation and events, short bios of major New Deal figures, information on New Deal programs, descriptions of New Deal sites across the U.S., and links to other resources (University of California et al.). You can listen to Fireside Chats and other FDR audio AUDIO (2016, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library), or read the full text of FDR's Fireside Chats (1999 - 2011, American Presidency Project; Gerhard Peters / The American Presidency Project, University of California). See also Wall Street Crash (1929), below.

Korean War - See Korean War and Veterans' Stories.

Labor - See Labor History links.

LGBTQ Movement - See LGBTQ links. For LGBTQ in the military, see Veterans' Stories links.

Living Room Candidate VIDEO - Extensive video archive of Presidential campaign television and web commercials from 1952 to the present. Includes commentary, historical background, and election results; organized by year, type of commercial, and issue. (2016, American Museum of the Moving Image)

McCarthyism - See Red Scare links.

National Archives Videos VIDEO - Historic video (under the heading Inside the Vaults) from United Newsreel, NASA, and the Department of Interior, covering World War II, the space program, national parks, and more. You can search for a specific subject by clicking on the MAGNIFYING GLASS icon next to 'About' in the National Archives Channel menu. (National Archives online videos are now hosted on YouTube; site includes advertisements).

National Security Archive - A collection of declassified national security documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Includes primary source materials (documents and audio) related to the 1953 coup against Iranian Premier Mohammad Mossadeq, the Cuban Missile Crisis, Pentagon Papers, Iran-Contra Affair, 1986 Reagan-Gorbachev Summit, Iraq War, and numerous other international policy subjects, covering more than 50 years up to the present; high school and up. (George Washington University)

New Deal - See Great Depression & New Deal, above.

Progressive Era to New Era, 1900 - 1929 - An overview of the early 20th century, an era of business expansion and progressive reform in the United States. Also explores related topics within this time period such as automobiles, cities, conservation, immigrants, prohibition, World War I, and women's suffrage (Library of Congress). See also Progressive Era, above.

Prohibition: Indomitable Spirits - Explains the causes and lasting consequences of the movement to ban alcoholic beverages in the U.S. (2013, Digital Public Library of America). See also Temperance & Prohibition (2003 - 2011, Ohio State University), and Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda (2004, Leah Rae Berk; Brown University). High school and up.

Red Scare [Archived page] - Describes the first nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, and other dissidents which seized the nation from 1919-1921 (2004; by Paul Burnett, 2L, and Professor Douglas O. Linder, University of Missouri Law School). For the communist scare of the 1950s, see McCarthyism and the Red Scare (Miller Center, University of Virginia), and U.S. History: McCarthyism (2008 - 2021, Independence Hall Association, Philadelphia).

Route 66 - Route 66, stretching from Chicago to Los Angeles, occupies a special place in the American imagination. It has been the subject or setting of novels, films, songs and stories. This website uses text and images to explore the history of Route 66, from its origins in ancient Native American footpaths to the iconic highway of the 20th century. High school and up (2009 - 2010, Northern Arizona University). See also Travel Route 66 (2020, National Park Service) and America on the Move: Route 66 (Smithsonian Institution; part of Transportation: America on the Move exhibit).

September 11, 2001 - An overview of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, including historical background and aftermath. For more on the history of terrorism, see Terrorism in Historical Perspective (both from University of Houston). The September 11 Television Archive VIDEO contains television news programs recorded live from around September 11, 2001. The September 11 Digital Archive AUDIO VIDEO offers a collection of eyewitnesses accounts, images, and other resources related to September 11, as well as 9/11 FAQs (City University of New York and George Mason University). You can view the original, unedited Newspaper Front Pages, September 12, 2001 [Archived page, may be slow to load] from 147 newspapers in 19 countries on the day after the attacks (Newseum). You can read the reports of the 9/11 Commission on its archived site. The September 11 Documentary Project AUDIO VIDEO includes almost 200 audio and video interviews, 45 graphic items, and 21 written narratives capturing the reactions, opinions, and eyewitness accounts of Americans and others in the months that followed the terrorist attacks; use the left-hand menu to navigate (Library of Congress). See also Days of Infamy, above.

Sixties: Psychedelic Sixties - Examines all aspects of the 1960s, including social protest, rock music, hippies, drug use, and 19th- and 20th-century precursors; high school and up (1998 - 2009, University of Virginia). The turning point: 1968 AUDIO VIDEO provides an overview of events during the critical year that began with the Tet offensive in Vietnam and ended with the election of Richard Nixon to the U.S. Presidency; high school and up (2017 - 2018, Miller Center, University of Virginia). 1968: The Whole World Was Watching [NOTE: Archived page; media features do not work] contains transcripts and edited stories of a series of interviews recollecting the year 1968, which include references to the Vietnam War, the struggle for Civil Rights, the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy as well as many more personal memories; a living history of one of the most tumultuous years in United States history; high school and up (created in 1998; South Kingstown [RI] High School and Brown University). Campaign '68 AUDIO is an audio program looking back at the 1968 presidential contest, a watershed event shaped by a controversial war, fractious race relations, and the rising power of television. Includes timeline, links, transcipt, and more; high school and up (2008, American Public Radio; site includes advertisements). See also Civil Rights links, below.

Space Program - See SCIENCE: Astronomy, Planets, and Space Flight.

Temperance & Prohibition - See Prohibition, above.

Vietnam War - See Korean & Vietnam Wars and Veterans' Stories.

Wall Street Crash (1929) - Explains why the crash happened and how it affected people (BBC). See also The Crash of '29 [Archived page] (1999, New York Times) and After the Crash (2009, Library of Congress). See also Great Depression & New Deal, above. For information on the economic crash of 2008, see Financial Crisis of 2007-08, above.

Watergate Scandal - A brief overview of events leading to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974 (by historian / author Rick Perlstein, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.; site includes advertisements). See also Watergate VIDEO (2019 - 2020, Miller Center, University of Virginia).

Wessels Living History Farm - See Food & Farming Links.

White House Tapes AUDIO - Between 1940 and 1973, six consecutive American presidents from FDR through Nixon secretly taped thousands of their meeting and telephone conversations. This site offers all the presidential recordings (primary sources), along with some transcripts and related research materials. High school and up. (Miller Center, University of Virginia)

Work & Workers - See Labor History links, above.

African-American Experience

See also:
HISTORY: Africa
DIVERSITY / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES

Facts on File EBSCO Explora
Salem History

GENERAL AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY RESOURCES

See more on our Homework links for
DIVERSITY / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES: African & African-American
& HISTORY: Africa

Facts on File: African-American History Online AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY ONLINE (Facts on File) - Provides expansive and in-depth information on the people, events, and topics important to the study of African-American history. If you're logging on at home, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN to get started.

Black Freedom Struggle in the United States BLACK FREEDOM - Select primary source documents related to critical people and events in African American history. Includes approximately 1,600 documents focused on six different phases of Black Freedom: Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement (1790-1860), The Civil War and the Reconstruction Era (1861-1877), Jim Crow Era from 1878 to the Great Depression (1878-1932), The New Deal and World War II (1933-1945), The Civil Rights and Black Power Movements (1946-1975), The Contemporary Era (1976-2000). Middle school and up; provided at no cost by ProQuest.

African American History and Culture: Exhibitions - Online exhibits relating to arts & entertainment, slavery & freedom, racism & civil rights, military experience, sports, and other aspects of black history and culture. (National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian). African American History Month AUDIO VIDEO highlights many additional exhibits and collections on African American history and culture in the Library of Congress, National Archives, National Park Service, and other federal institutions; organized by subject. EDSITEment's Guide to Black History Month Resources offers a comprehensive collection of vetted websites and lessons on African American history and literature arranged roughly by historical period; for K-12 teachers and students (National Endowment for the Humanities).

African American History: Timeline - A chronological overview of African American history from before 1600 to 2009, with links to additional information on key topics. The same site also offers Online Encyclopedia of African American History featuring short articles (with images) about people, places, events, and institutions which have contributed to the shaping of African American history, plus groups & organizations, speeches, primary documents, and more (2007 - 2022, BlackPast.org; Quintard Taylor, Professor of American History, University of Washington).

African-American Migration Experience - Focuses on both voluntary and forced migrations of peoples of African descent, beginning with the transatlantic slave trade and, in the 1500s, the first Africans coming from Mexico and the Caribbean to the Spanish territories of the American South, followed by successive generations moving to the north, south, and west. Includes a timeline; high school and up (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library).

African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship - Explores black America's quest for equality from the early national period through the twentieth century, with text, documents, and images; arranged chronologically. (2008, Library of Congress)

African American Religion [Archived page] - An overview of history of the African-American religion, 'from the earliest African-European encounters along the west coast of Africa in the mid-fifteenth century to the present day.' Divided into three time periods, with a bibliography of recommended resources. Companion site to a multi-volume book series; high school and up. (2006, Amherst College)

Black History in Two Minutes VIDEO - A free video podcast series describing major historical events and introducing less well-known experiences involving Black Americans. Topics range from recent events to the founding of the United States of America. Heroes of the Civil Rights movement are covered, as are some of the more obscure figures in the fight for equality. (Hosted by Harvard Professor Henry Louis Gates Jr.)

Congressional Black Caucus - See Black Leadership and related links.

Harlem Renaissance - See Harlem Renaissance: Drop Me Off in Harlem.

History Makers [Videos are no longer available] - Brief biographies of thousands of both well-known and unsung African-Americans, drawn from a wide variety of fields including arts, entertainment, media, politics, science, sports, business, and more. (The HistoryMakers, non-profit organization; site includes advertisements)

New Jersey History: Afro-Americans in New Jersey - This online report covers the colonial period through the 1980s. You can view each section separately or download the entire report - scroll down for the table of contents. PDF format (1989; by Giles R. Wright, New Jersey Historical Commission).

Say It Plain, Say It Loud: Great African American Speeches AUDIO - You can read and/or listen to an hour-long radio show to learn about the tradition of powerful black political orators in the United States, or click on the name of one of a dozen featured speakers (including Marcus Garvey, Fannie Lou Hamer, Stokely Carmichael, Shirley Chisholm, and Barack Obama) to read their biographies and read or hear one of their speeches. (American Public Media; site includes advertisements)


SLAVERY

Facts on File: African-American History Online AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY ONLINE (Facts on File) - Provides expansive and in-depth information on the people, events, and topics important to the study of African-American history. If you're logging on at home, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN to get started.

Black Freedom Struggle in the United States BLACK FREEDOM - Select primary source documents related to critical people and events in African American history. Includes approximately 1,600 documents focused on six different phases of Black Freedom: Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement (1790-1860), The Civil War and the Reconstruction Era (1861-1877), Jim Crow Era from 1878 to the Great Depression (1878-1932), The New Deal and World War II (1933-1945), The Civil Rights and Black Power Movements (1946-1975), The Contemporary Era (1976-2000). Middle school and up; provided at no cost by ProQuest.

Africans in America - Explores the history of slavery in America from 1450 to 1865; arranged chronologically. Each section includes a narrative and a Resource Bank of images, documents, stories, biographies, & commentaries (1998, WGBH Educational Foundation; PBS). Slavery and the Making of America [NOTE: Archived page; media features do not work] documents the history of American slavery from its beginnings in the British colonies to its end, looking at slavery as an integral part of a developing nation while also focusing on the experiences of slaves (2004, PBS; site includes advertisements).

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives - Thousands of first-person accounts (primary sources) of slavery, collected in the 1930s (2001, Library of Congress). North American Slave Narratives 'collects books and articles that document the individual and collective story of African Americans struggling for freedom and human rights in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries' (2004, University of North Carolina). For smaller selections of narratives, see Voices Remembering Slavery: Freed People Tell Their Stories AUDIO (2009, Library of Congress) or American Slave Narratives (1998, University of Virginia). High school and up. See also Forced Migration, below.

Civil War - Includes links on topics related to the African-American experience around the time of the Civil War. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Colonial African Americans [Archived page, may be slow to load] - A look at the everyday life of African-Americans in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia. A new version of this page with additional and updated materials may be found at Colonial Williamsburg: The African American Experience (Colonial Williamsburg)

Food & Enslavement in Early America - 'During the early colonial era, European settlers survived by relying upon indentured servants, Native Americans, and African slave labor for life-saving knowledge of farming and food acquisition... It is through the labor of slaves, like those at George Washington's Mount Vernon, that we can learn about the ways that meals transcend taste and sustenance.' (National Library of Medicine)

Forced Migration of Enslaved People, 1810 - 1860 INTERACTIVE - 'The decades between the banning of the international slave trade in 1808 and the abolition of slavery during the Civil War saw the massive and harrowing relocation of approximately 850,000 enslaved men, women, and children. While some enslaved people were moved when their owners relocated to the western frontier, about two-thirds were bought and sold in America's slave market. They were forcibly uprooted from their homes, separated from their loved ones, and marched and shipped across the South on railroads and steamships.' Use this interactive map & timeline to read some of their stories; click on the Narratives tab to the right of the map (University of Richmond). See Born in Slavery, above, for more slave narratives.

Juneteenth - See Juneteenth - Black Independence Day.

People Not Property VIDEO INTERACTIVE - An interactive documentary about the history of Northern colonial enslavement, offering a cross-section of human stories emblematic of the lived experience of slavery in colonial America (Historic Hudson Valley). Enslaved: Stories tells a variety of stories from across Africa and the Americas, of enslaved people fighting for their freedom, of the shifting boundaries between enslavement and liberation, and of the dynamics of slave trading, raiding, and life (Michigan State University et al.).

Slave Trade - See Slave Voyages, below.

Slave Voyages - Essays on the history of slavery and the Transatlantic slave trade, plus related resources. For teachers and students, grades 6 - 12 (2007 - 2009, Emory University). Voyage of the Slave Ship Sally retraces the journey of a single 18th century Rhode Island slave ship, from its initial preparation through the long months on the African coast, to the auctioning of surviving captives on the West Indian island of Antigua; high school and up (Brown University). See also England and the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

Underground Railroad - Essays on slavery & the Underground Railroad, brief stories and information about the people & places associated with the Underground Railroad; scroll down the left-hand menu to the heading Discover Underground Railroad History to access research reports, timeline, maps, photos, terminology, and lesson plans (National Park Service). See also Harriet Tubman (2021, Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Byway).

Understanding Slavery - A wealth of materials for teaching and learning about the transatlantic slavery and its legacies, from Europe & Africa before transatlantic slavery to the modern era (2021, National Maritime Museum [UK] et al.).


JIM CROW, CIVIL RIGHTS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY

See more on our Homework links for
DIVERSITY / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES: African & African-American

Facts on File: African-American History Online AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY ONLINE (Facts on File) - Provides expansive and in-depth information on the people, events, and topics important to the study of African-American history. If you're logging on at home, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN to get started.

Black Freedom Struggle in the United States BLACK FREEDOM - Select primary source documents related to critical people and events in African American history. Includes approximately 1,600 documents focused on six different phases of Black Freedom: Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement (1790-1860), The Civil War and the Reconstruction Era (1861-1877), Jim Crow Era from 1878 to the Great Depression (1878-1932), The New Deal and World War II (1933-1945), The Civil Rights and Black Power Movements (1946-1975), The Contemporary Era (1976-2000). Middle school and up; provided at no cost by ProQuest.

American Black Journal UPDATED LINKS! VIDEO - Archived video programs representing a wide variety of African-American viewpoints on issues ranging from labor unrest in the automobile industry, to the urban civil disturbances in Detroit and across the nation riots of 1967, the emergence of outspoken African American political leaders, and the explosion of Motown music; includes interviews, discussions, features, and artistic performances. You can browse by theme or guest (Detroit Public Television and Michigan State University).

Amistad Digital Resource [Archived page; videos do not play] - Background essays and related primary resources (images and documents) on key topics, events, people, and organizations in 20th century black history. (2009, Columbia University)

Baseball's Negro Leagues NEW! VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Examines the experiences of players in Negro League Baseball, and the connection between baseball and the civil rights movement; includes learning activities for grades 1 - 6 (Atlanta History Center). To learn more about Negro Leagues and their players, see The Negro Leagues NEW! (Major League Baseball) and Storied: 22 Stories about the Negro Leagues NEW! VIDEO (Negro Leagues Baseball Museum). See also Barrier Breakers: From Jackie to Pumpsie NEW! (Negro Leagues Baseball Museum), and Breaking Records, Breaking Barriers and related links.

Birmingham Children's Crusade VIDEO - Combining stories from the past, original artwork, and historic photographs, this site explores the resistance and persistence of young people in 1963 as they nonviolently protested for change. Includes activities for home or classroom; for grades K-12 (Atlanta History Center).

Black Leadership - See Black Leadership and related links.

Black Quotidian - Explores everyday lives of African Americans in the twentieth century through an archive of digitized African-American newspapers, revealing how the Black press popularized African-American history and valued the lives of both famous and ordinary Black people. Includes a section organized by the themes of Women, Arts & Culture, Civil Rights & Black Freedom, Sports, Politics & Voting, Youth, Racial Violence, and Military & Veterans; high school and up. (2019, Professor Matthew F. Delmont, Dartmouth College; Stanford University Press)

Brown v. Board of Education - Summary, oral history, court opinions, and other materials related to the historically significant Supreme Court case which denied the legal basis for segregation of public schools. Click on 'About Brown v. Board' from the top menu for related info (2010, Brown Foundation). With an Even Hand: Brown v. Board at 50 (2010, Library of Congress) and Separate is Not Equal (2009, Smithsonian Institution) offer additional resources on this topic. From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans provides background readings, images, and educational activities that explore historic events in Canterbury, Connecticut, and Little Rock, Arkansas, which tested the prevailing assumptions of the time regarding racial integration of schools (2010, National Park Service).

Civil Rights Movement: Explore 1963, The Struggle for Civil Rights AUDIO VIDEO - Explores the inside story of key events in civil rights history through the words and actions of the people who lived it. Includes primary source material such as press conferences, letters, photographs, and film footage of the peaceful March on Washington. Also includes lesson plans for elementary through high school (2016, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). Civil Rights Digital Library AUDIO VIDEO provides brief background essays with links to additional primary sources and other materials on a wide range of topics relating to the civil rights movement. You can browse the site by Events, Places, People, Topics, or media type, or search by keyword. High school and up (2013, Digital Library of Georgia). See also The Civil Rights Act of 1964 NEW! (Miller Center, University of Virginia).

Freedom Riders - See King Encyclopedia entry.

Freedom Summer: Oh Freedom AUDIO - Radio documentary recounting events surrounding the murders of three young civil rights workers in Mississippi during the summer of 1964. Includes story text and interviews (2001, American Public Media; site includes advertisements). See also King Encyclopedia entry.

Jim Crow History [NOTE: Archived page; some media features do not work] - Explores the history of racial segration in the U.S. from the 1870s through the 1950s. Includes a timeline, personal narratives, photos, documents, and more (2002 Educational Broadcasting Corporation / WNET NY; site includes advertisements). In the radio documentary Remembering Jim Crow [NOTE: Archived page; some media features do not work] AUDIO, Americans - black and white - remember life in the Jim Crow times (2013, American Public Media; site includes advertisements). Black Citizenship in the Age of Jim Crow recounts the dramatic national story of the struggle for Black equality after the end of slavery. Includes a family discussion guide and student curriculum; ages 8 and up. Use the MENU to choose a topic (New York Historical Society).

Martin Luther King Jr. Institute AUDIO VIDEO - Biography, encyclopedia of the civil rights movement, and other resources related to Martin Luther King Jr. Also includes an animated, interactive presentation of Dr. King's ''I Have a Dream'' speech, and a Major King Events Chronology (Timeline): 1929-1968 (Stanford University). See also About Dr. King (The King Center; non-profit organization), The Real Martin Luther King AUDIO (Backstory Radio), Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (King Institute, Stanford University), and The Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. NEW! (Miller Center, University of Virginia).

Music of the Civil Rights Movement: Civil Rights on the B-Side AUDIO VIDEO - Examines 'a treasure trove of long-forgotten civil rights era protest music could have been lost forever if one man hadn't thought to start flipping over old records to see what was on the other side.' Middle school and up (Kennedy Center, videos hosted on YouTube). See also The Freedom Riders and the Popular Music of the Civil Rights Movement VIDEO; high school and up (EDSITEment / National Endowment for the Humanities, videos hosted on YouTube).

NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom - Examines the major personalities, events, and achievements of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) during its first 100 years. Covers the founding and early years of the NAACP, the 'New Negro Movement', the Great Depression, World War II & the Post War Years, and the Civil Rights Era. Includes photos, primary documents, and an interactive timeline. (2009, Library of Congress)

Sports - See Baseball's Negro Leagues and related links.

Tulsa Race Massacre - Examines the local and national factors that contributed to the events of May 31, 1921 in Tulsa OK, when a mob of white rioters destroyed the African-American neighborhood of Greenwood, killing as many as 300 and leaving thousands homeless (Oklahoma Historical Society). See also Tulsa race massacre of 1921 (Encyclopaedia Britannica) and History.com: Tulsa Race Massacre (2018 - 2021).

Tuskegee Airmen - A brief overview of the World War II 'Tuskegee Airmen', who overcame many obstacles to be allowed to train and fight as the first black U.S. Army Air Corps pilots. Site includes many photos and links to additional resources (Commemorative Air Force; non-profit organization). See also Who are the Tuskegee Airmen? and And There Were Women (National Park Service). Tuskegee Army Nurses AUDIO VIDEO tells the story of the black women who served in the Army Nurse Corps during World War II at Tuskegee Army Air Field (by Pia Marie Winters Jordan, assistant professor at Morgan State University). The Buffalo Soldiers examines the contributions of 'Buffalo Soldiers', African-American men who served in the military after the Civil War (National Park Service). To learn more about African-Americans in the military during the 19th century, see also Ethnicity, Race, and the Military in the Civil War, above. For more historical resources on African-Americans service in the U.S. military, see Veterans' Stories and related links, above.

Immigrant Experience

See also:
African-American Experience
DIVERSITY / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES

Salem History Facts on File EBSCO Explora

Americanization: Then and Now - Examines a 1919 pamphlet promoting 'Americanization' to take a look at how the politics and rhetoric of US immigration policy have shifted over the past century; high school and up. (2019, American Philosophical Society)

Angel Island - Opened in California in 1910, Angel Island is sometimes called the 'Ellis Island of the West', but was mainly built to control the flow of Chinese into the country after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. This page provides an overview of Chinese immigration since 1848, as well as Japanese, Koreans, and other groups who entered the U.S. through Angel Island (Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation). Chinese American: Exclusion/Inclusion 'chronicles the complex history of the Chinese in America - the challenges of immigration, citizenship, and belonging that shaped both the Chinese American experience and the development of the United States as a nation;' click on Online Exhibition to start (2014, New York Historical Society). See also Transcontinental Railroad: Chinese Railroad Workers, above.

Arab Americans: Coming to America VIDEO - Traces immigration from the Arab world to the United States, with a focus on the time period from the 1880s to the present era, and explores how Arab Americans have lived and contributed to life in America. (2021, Arab American National Museum)

Be a Historian: Immigration UPDATED LINK! INTERACTIVE - This well-designed interactive site invites you to help in developing a museum display about immigration to America. Focus is on Iowa, but much of the material presented applies to American immigration generally. Middle school and up. (2005, Silos and Smokestacks National Heritage Area / Grout Museum of History & Science)

Destination America [NOTE: Archived page; videos do not play] - Background materials on the history of immigration to the U.S., including essays, personal stories, photos, timelines, quiz, and related resources; companion website for the PBS TV series. (2005, Educational Broadcasting Corporation; site includes advertisements)

Ellis Island: Immigration Timeline - Click a spot on the timeline for an infographic and description of any period in immigration history through 2000 (2001, Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation; site includes advertisements). See also Statue of Liberty links, below. The Immigration to the United States Timeline, 1789-1930 [Archived page; broken links] presents key dates and landmarks in United States immigration history, from 1789 to 1940 (Harvard University).

Diversity / Multicultural Resources - Selected links to information about the history and culture of various ethnic, racial, and other population groups, including African & African-American, Arab-American & Muslim, Asian & Asian-American, Jewish, European-American (Irish, Italian, German), Hispanic-American & Latino, Indian Tribes & Native Peoples, women, people with disabilities, and more. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Ethnic America: Voices - Primary sources and related materials on a diversity of American ethnic groups. High school and up. (Digital History, University of Houston)

Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History - 'The history of the United States has always been shaped by peoples and communities who came to its shores or moved within its borders. Some sought a better life, some fled oppression, and some were moved against their will. This presentation uses Library of Congress primary sources to explore moments and experiences from several of these communities.' See also Immigration History [Archived page, may be slow to load] and Pot Luck recipes [Archived page, may be slow to load]. (Library of Congress)

Immigration Stories VIDEO INTERACTIVE - 'Find out what it means to come to the United States as an immigrant from the early 20th century through the early 21st century,' through personal stories, a virtual tour of Ellis Island, immigration data charts, and more. For middle school students. (Scholastic Inc.; site includes advertisements)

Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930 [Archived page, may be slow to load] - Essays on notable topics, and people associated with them. On a related site there is also a large searchable collection of selected historical materials, including many primary resources, concentrating heavily on the 19th century. Thousands of books and photographs, and 13,000 pages from manuscript and archival collections. 'By incorporating diaries, biographies, and other writings capturing diverse experiences, the collected material provides a window into the lives of ordinary immigrants.' High school and up. (Harvard University)

Japanese-American Internment in World War II - See Japanese-American Internment links.

Jewish Life in America - A description of Jewish immigration, particularly during the period 1820-1924, and 350 years of Jewish life in America, with photographs of related documents and artifacts (2010, Library of Congress). See also The Jewish-Americans [Archived page; media features do not work], covering Jewish American history from the first Jews to arrive in New Amsterdam in 1654, to Jewish life in modern America (PBS et al; site includes advertisements).

Statue of Liberty - A short article about the statue's history, with links to fun facts, pictures, and more (Statue of Liberty - Ellis Island Foundation). See also Statue of Liberty History & Culture (National Park Service), and Ellis Island links, above.

Triangle Factory Fire AUDIO - Primary documents, recorded interviews, photos, and a textual history of the 1911 fire at the Triangle Waist Company in New York City, which claimed the lives of 146 young immigrant workers (2011, Cornell University). See A Shirtwaist Disaster! for related materials and lesson plan; middle school and up (Ohio State University).

revised 4/22 jd

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