US flag U.S. History See also:
BIOGRAPHY
DINOSAURS, FOSSILS, & THE PREHISTORIC WORLD
ETHNIC / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES
INDIAN TRIBES & NATIVE PEOPLES
LOCAL INFORMATION
SOCIAL STUDIES
STATES & COUNTRIES
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora

Salem HistorySALEM HISTORY: Searchable database offering the complete content of Salem Press's Decades in America (1950s - 1990s) reference series. You can search the database by keyword or browse by category. If you're using SALEM HISTORY on your home computer, you'll have to enter your library card barcode to begin.

Facts on File databasesFACTS ON FILE REFERENCE DATABASES: Login to FACTS ON FILE to access a great collection of history reference databases. If you're using FACTS ON FILE on your home computer, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN.

  • Facts on File: American History Online
  • Facts on File: American Womens History Online
  • Facts on File: African-American History Online
  • Facts on File: American Indian History Online
  • Facts on File: Modern World History Online
  • Facts on File: Ancient and Medieval History Online

General U.S. History

See also:
African-American Experience
Women's History
INDIAN TRIBES & NATIVE PEOPLES
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

Agricultural History - See Food & Farming Links.

America's Founding Documents - Text and background for the 'Charters of Freedom': the Declaration of Indepence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Includes documents, articles biographies, and photos (2017, National Archives & Records Administration). Our Documents provides historical background and text for 100 key documents voted by Americans of all ages to be the most influential documents in American history (National Archives & Records Administration). Primary Documents in American History includes important documents from 1775-1815 (The American Revolution and the New Nation), 1815-1860 (National Expansion and Reform), 1860-1877 (Civil War and Reconstruction), and 1878-1920 (Gilded Age and Progressive Era), with background information and related resources for each document (Library of Congress). Documents for the Study of American History [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] AUDIO includes letters, journals, speeches, proclamations, and many other primary documents from the 9th century to the 21st. Arranged by time period (2005 - 2010, by George Laughead; WWW Virtual Library / University of Kansas). American Culture E-Texts has dozens of online electronic texts for the study of American history and culture, including influential essays, novels, poetry, biography, slave narratives, and more; some include related background materials. High school and up. (University of Virginia).

American Experience VIDEO - A wealth of information on American history, including Presidents, biographies, war & politics, technology, popular culture, and the American landscape. Includes video, primary sources, timelines, articles, and other special features. You can search special features by topic, type, or collection; for middle school and high school students. There is also a separate page for Classroom Resources. (WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements)

American History Biographies - Biographies of historical and literary figures from John Adams to Robert Yates. (1994 - 2012, University of Groningen, Netherlands)

American Memory Timeline - A user-friendly resource featuring selected primary sources on United States History, arranged by chronological period from the colonial era through 1968. The American Memory and other Library of Congress Digital Collections NEW! AUDIO VIDEO provide primary sources such as photographs, newspapers, oral histories, maps, and other materials on a variety of aspects of American history including African-Americans, Native Americans, women, Presidents, sports, advertising, war, religion, arts, and more; grade level varies. (Library of Congress)

American Presidents VIDEO - Pick a president from the drop down menu at the top to see background info and related materials, including biographical facts, key events, presidential places, portraits, and video from the American Presidents: Life Portraits series (C-Span). See also American Presidency: A Glorious Burden (Smithsonian Institution), and Biographies of the First Ladies (2009, National First Ladies Library); the above sites are suitable for students of all ages. C-Span offers a video series on First Ladies: Influence & Image VIDEO, for high school and up (2014). College or advanced high school students will find more information on the Presidents at American President: An Online Reference Resource AUDIO VIDEO (University of Virginia). The American Presidency Project [Archived page] VIDEO is a searchable database of Presidential messages, speeches, papers, and other documents, as well as YouTube-hosted videos of recent presidents (University of California). Our Presidents VIDEO & Presidential Libraries offers documents and and other historical materials, covering Herbert Hoover through Barack Obama (National Archives & Records Administration).

American Yawp - A collaboratively-built online American history textbook designed for college-level history courses, written by scholars, for scholars. Offering a coherent and accessible narrative from all the best of recent historical scholarship, it incorporates transnational perspectives, integrates diverse voices, recovers narratives of resistance, and explores the complex process of cultural creation. Chapters are arranged chronologically. (Edited by Joseph Locke, University of Houston, and Ben Wright, University of Texas)

Americans At War AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - This interactive exhibit 'examines how wars have shaped the nations history and transformed American society,' from the War of Independence to the present; select a specific conflict from the timeline. Includes a non-flash version and Learning Resources (Smithsonian Institution). See also Veterans' Stories, below.

America's Story AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Entertaining tales of America's past told through letters, diaries, records & tapes, films, sheet music, maps, prints, photographs and digital materials. 'Here, you can discover what Abraham Lincoln had in his pockets on the night he was assassinated... Or you can read about other 'Amazing Americans' such as Buffalo Bill Cody and his 'Wild West' show; the heroism of Harriet Tubman, who helped many slaves escape bondage; the music of jazz great Duke Ellington; or the inventions of Thomas Edison (You will even be able to see his first motion picture!)'. Includes a useful Jump Back in Time timeline. (2009, Library of Congress)

Backstory Radio AUDIO - 'A weekly podcast that uses current events in America to take a deep dive into our past. Hosted by noted U.S. historians, each episode provides listeners with different perspectives on a particular theme or subject - giving you all sides to the story and then some.' (Virginia Foundation for the Humanities). In the Past Lane NEW! AUDIO is another excellent podcast on American History (Edward T. O'Donnell, associate professor at Holy Cross College).

Biography of America VIDEO - A video series and companion website on the forces that have shaped America. 'First-person narratives, photos, film footage, and documents reveal the human side of American history — how historical figures affected events, and the impact of these events on citizens' lives.' 26 half-hour videos for high school and up. (2000; WGBH, Annenberg Media et al.)

Digital History AUDIO VIDEO - A mega-site covering the entire span of American history from pre-European culture to the present. Includes an online textbook, primary documents, ethnic histories, biographies, maps, speeches, images, multimedia content, interactive timeline, and just about anything else you can think of; for all ages. Digital History Explorations are interactive modules designed to give students the opportunity to do history: to conduct research, analyze primary sources, and draw their own conclusions; includes teacher resources for each topic. (University of Houston)

Documents for the Study of American History - See America's Founding Documents and related links, above

Eyewitness - Primary materials including first-person accounts, documents and images. Covers a variety of events in the U.S. and abroad, including the Fall of the Bastille in 1789, the American Revolution, the civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, the assasinations of Abraham Lincoln & John F. Kennedy, the meeting of Truman and Stalin, the re-unification of Germany, and more. High school and up. (National Archives)

Facing Freedom AUDIO - 'Explores conflicts over freedom through four themes which highlight moments when Americans have struggled over the meaning of freedom.' Looks at labor problems, the Civil War & slavery, American Indian Rights, Japanese Internment, school segregation, and votes for women. Includes primary and secondary sources, including photographs, objects, documents, audio and video. For middle school and high school. (2013, Chicago History Museum)

Fake News (History of) - See Fake News links.

Fast Facts from U.S. History - A collection of brief historical facts from 1790 to 2010, in culture, science & technology, politics, 'firsts', disasters, and more; arranged by decades. (U.S. Census Bureau).

First Measured Century Timeline - An interactive timeline of U.S. history from 1870-2000, with links to analyses of statistical data and trends on dozens of subjects. High school and up (PBS).

Food & Farming History - Our selected links to information about the history of food and agriculture in the U.S. and the world. (South Plainfield Public Library).

Freedom: A History of US INTERACTIVE [NOTE: Archived page; audio and video features may not work.] - An exploration of Americans' quest for freedom, from the struggle for independence through the beginnings of the 21st century (2002, Picture History and Educational Broadcasting Corporation [PBS]; site includes advertisements).

Growing a Nation: the Story of American Agriculture - See Food & Farming Links.

History Matters AUDIO - A gateway to web resources and other useful materials on U.S. history, including 1000 primary documents, images, & audio interviews, and hundreds of reviewed & annotated websites, as well as materials specifically for teachers. High school and up. (1998 - 2018, American Social History Productions, Inc. / George Mason University, CUNY)

Indian Tribes & Native Peoples Links - Our selected links to information about Native Americans and other native peoples. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Interactive Map of U.S. History INTERACTIVE - 'Discover how the continent was irrevocably changed by European colonization, the events that caused the wholesale displacement and decimation of the land's original inhabitants, and how the 50 states came to be formed.' High school and up.(Annenberg Media). Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States INTERACTIVE reproduces one of the greatest historical atlases, first published in 1932, now digitally enhanced with twenty-first century functionality; high school and up (University of Richmond).

Labor History VIDEO - A timeline of labor union history in the U.S., with biographies of prominent labor leaders of the past, descriptions of key events in labor history, and more. (AFL-CIO, a federation of 57 national and international labor unions)

National Archives: American History Reference - Selected links to research tools covering many topics of historical relevance, such as biography, black history, exploration, the Holocaust, Native Americans, space exploration, war crimes, women, and more. Also includes a selection of links to additional resources in American History. (National Archives and Records Administration)

National Museum of American History INTERACTIVE - More than 50 online exhibits covering a wide range of American history topics, including presidents, civil rights movements, music, war, science, technology, and inventions, and others. Smithsonian's History Explorer VIDEO INTERACTIVE is a collection of 'innovative, standards-based online resources for teaching and learning American history', searchable by subject, grade level, resource type, and historical era. With Our Story: Activities you can experience history first-hand through stories, activities, books, and more. For K-12 students & teachers (Smithsonian Institution). See also Online American History Exhibits (National Archives & Records Administration).

Picturing U.S. History VIDEO - Photos and other images that illuminate American history, with related background essays, video lectures, and classroom suggestions. Topics covered include Race & Slavery, Colonial America, Jacksonian America, and the American West. High school and up. (City University of New York)

Railroads and the Making of Modern America - Examines various episodes in U.S. History 'where technology and social change correlate.' Covers topics such as Slavery & Southern Railroads, Railroad Work & Workers, Civil War & Strategy, The Great Railway Strike of 1877, Politics & Corruption, The Origins of Segregation, and more. Each topic provides a brief summary plus related documents - personal letters, diaries, newspaper articles, images, and others. High school and up. (William G. Thomas, III et al.; University of Nebraska)

Talking History AUDIO - An interesting collection of radio programs and shorter audio clips on a wide assortment of topics in history, mostly American history. There is no subject index, but you can search the collection by keyword. NOTE: Talking History ceased over-the-air broadcasting as of May 17, 2016. (State University of New York, Albany; site includes advertisements)

Teaching History - U.S. history education resources for teachers and students, K-12. Includes website reviews, quizzes, multimedia links, 'Ask a Historian' feature, and quick links for elementary, middle, and high school. (National History Education Clearinghouse, Center for History & New Media, et al.)

Teaching with Historic Places - Maps, images, and background readings exploring more than 25 themes in (mostly American) history, covering various events and the sites associated with them. Includes African American history, Women's history, Hispanic heritage, Asian Pacific heritage, American Indian history, Civil War, World War II, and more. See also Discover History pages. (National Park Service)

Turns of the Centuries - Explore the periods of 1680-1720, 1780-1820, and 1880-1920 in New England history. For each era, you can learn about Family Life, Native Americans, African Americans, Newcomers, and the Land. (2001 - 2011, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield, Massachusetts)

U.S. Diplomatic Milestones [Archived page] - Short essays on many important events in U.S. diplomatic history between 1750 and 2000. Arranged by time period. High school and up. (U.S. State Department)

USA: Outline of American History - Good, well-organized essays on topics of each period from pre-Colonial America through the 1990s; few links. Also offers speeches, bios, and other documents of the Presidents. (1994 - 2012; University of Groningen, Netherlands)

Veterans' Stories AUDIO VIDEO - This site offers videos of interviews with U.S. veterans of World War II and the Korean and Vietnam conflicts. You can also access stories by themes such as courage, buddies, patriotism, and POWs, as well as African-American Pioneers, African-Americans: The Next Generation, American Indians, Asian Pacific Americans, Hispanic Americans (and more Hispanic American Veterans NEW!), and Women AUDIO VIDEO (2009 - 2010, Library of Congress). See also From the Home Front and the Front Lines for letters, photos, diaries, and related documents from World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the 1991 Persian Gulf War (2010, Library of Congress), Veterans' Oral Histories VIDEO, covering World War II through today (American Veterans Center), and Battle Lines: Letters from America's Wars UPDATED LINK! AUDIO INTERACTIVE (2009 - 2011, Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History). U.S. Army Heritage VIDEO includes features commemorating the service of African Americans, Asians Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and women in the U.S. Army. U. S. Navy Diversity includes articles, photos, and oral histories from the early 19th century through the present on African Americans, Asians Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, women and LGBT in the U. S. Navy. Voces Oral History Project NEW! documents the contributions of U.S. Latinos and Latinas of the WWII, Korean War and Vietnam War generations. The Betty H. Carter Women Veterans Historical Project documents the contributions of women in the military and related service organizations since World War I, with photographs, letters, diaries, scrapbooks, oral histories, and other primary sources (University of North Carolina). For more on women's military service, see Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) of World War II & Women Military Aviators (Texas Woman's University), and Wings Across America AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE (Nancy Parrish and Baylor University). Code Girls' Story NEW! (National Archives & Records Administration) and Code Girls videos NEW! VIDEO (author Liz Mundy) tell the story of the young American women who cracked key Axis codes, helping to secure Allied victory. See also Ethnicity, Race, and the Military in the Civil War, below, Tuskegee Airmen and related links, below, and Native Americans and the U.S. Military.

The Way We Worked VIDEO - A collection of photographs documenting American workers and their work, from the mid 19th to the late 20th centuries. These historical photographs show different types of work, work clothing, locales, working conditions, and workplace conflict. Includes a short introductory video. (National Archives & Records Administration)

Web Rangers: History Activities INTERACTIVE - A collection of interactive games and activities on many different historic topics. Each activity has a rating of Easy, Medium, or Hard; for elementary through high school. (National Park Service)

We're History - Tells the story of how America became what it is today. Written and edited by scholars, it is real history, with all its triumphs, failures, twists, and ironies. (2016, co-edited by Professor Heather Cox Richardson, Boston College, and Professor Joshua D. Rothman, University of Alabama)

Whaling: Laura Jernegan, Girl on a Whaleship INTERACTIVE - 'In October, 1868, Laura Jernegan, a six year old girl from Edgartown, Massachusetts set out on a three year whaling voyage with her father, mother, brother and the ship's crew to the whaling grounds of the Pacific Ocean. This website tells the story of Laura Jernegan and the journal she kept on her voyage. It also tells the adventurous history of whaling. Middle school and up. (2010, Martha's Vineyard Museum)

Within These Walls - Tells the stories of five families who lived in a single house over two centuries (1757-1945), and made history in their kitchens and parlors through everyday choices and personal acts of courage and sacrifice. (Smithsonian Institution)

Women's History Links - Our selected links to websites on women's history in the U.S. and throughout the world. (South Plainfield Public Library)

New Jersey History

See LOCAL INFORMATION for links on New Jersey History and related topics.

Pre-Colonial through Early 19th Century America

See also:
INDIAN TRIBES & NATIVE PEOPLES
Women's History
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

American History Myths Debunked - 'Every day, stories about people or objects are told in museums that are not true. Some are outright fabrications. Others contain a kernel of truth that has been embellished over the years.' This site debunks (or confirms) common myths about American history, mostly covering the colonial period. (By historian / author Mary Miley Theobald; site includes advertisements)

American Revolution - 'Have you ever wondered: How fewer than three million colonists defeated the greatest military and naval power of the late 18th century? How good a general George Washington was? What women were doing during the Revolution? What effects the Revolution had on Indian tribes? What the best books on the period are? Here's the place to start getting some answers. Available here are a timeline, revolutionary stories, biographies, and suggestions for further reading.' (2008, National Park Service)

Benjamin Franklin FAQ - Answers to some common questions about Franklin (2006, Franklin Institute). Benjamin Franklin: In His Own Words reviews Franklin's public, professional, and scientific achievements - as a printer & writer, an inventor & scientist, and a politician & statesman. Includes important primary sources such as documents, letters, books, broadsides, and cartoons (2006, Library of Congress). See also Benjamin Franklin INTERACTIVE (2002, Twin Cities Public Television Inc.; site includes advertisements), and Benjamin Franklin 300 VIDEO INTERACTIVE (2006, Franklin & Marshall College et al.)

Coming of the American Revolution - Essays on 15 topics, such as the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, the Boston Tea Party and the Battle of Bunker Hill, examine events leading up to the American Revolution; supplemented by letters, diary entries, maps, portraits, news accounts and other primary sources. High school and up. (2008, Massachusetts Historical Society)

George Washington VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Explores the life and influence of George Washington. Includes a timeline, digital encyclopedia, and other resources (Mount Vernon Ladies Association). See also George Washington's Life (A Chronology) (Smithsonian).

Indian Converts - See Indian Converts on the Indian Tribes / Native Peoples page.

Jefferson Encyclopedia - 'Trustworthy information on Thomas Jefferson and his world by Monticello researchers and respected Jefferson scholars.' Arrranged by topic; high school and up. Use the main menu to access many additional resources about Jefferson, Monticello House & Gardens, and Plantation & Slavery; middle school and up. (Thomas Jefferson Foundation)

John Smith's Voyage - In 1608, Captain John Smith and fourteen other English colonists set out from Jamestown by boat to explore and map the Chesapeake Bay, observing the Chesapeake's vibrant ecosystem and a multitude of American Indian cultures thriving along its shores. This website offers an in-depth account of their historic voyage, Smith's map and journals, and background on a 2007 expedition to re-trace Smith's trip. High school and up. (2008, Sultana Projects)

Life in 18th Century America AUDIO VIDEO - A look at many different aspects of life in Colonial times, such as family, manners, politics, religion, tools, trades, and the African-American experience. Includes multimedia presentations, online exhibits INTERACTIVE, and podcast (Click here for podcast RSS feed). (Colonial Williamsburg)

New York City in Early America: A Guided Tour [Click on 'START TOUR', on the right side below the menu to begin] - A brief overview of the history of New York City during the colonial and revolutionary periods. Each page displays a relevant primary document. Includes additional Teaching & Learning Resources on 'The American Revolution: An Everyday Life Perspective'. (2007 - 2013, New York University Libraries et al.)

Raid on Deerfield, 1704 AUDIO - 'In the pre-dawn hours of February 29, 1704, a force of about 300 French and Native allies launched a daring raid on the English settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts... Was this dramatic pre-dawn assault in contested lands an unprovoked, brutal attack on an innocent village of English settlers? Was it a justified military action against a stockaded settlement in a Native homeland? Or was it something else? Explore this website and hear all sides of the story — then you decide.' Includes images, biographies, artifacts & documents, maps, timeline, and period music. Middle and high school students. (2004, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association / Memorial Hall Museum, Deerfield, MA)

Shays' Rebellion AUDIO INTERACTIVE - 'Only three years after the American Revolution ended, thousands of Massachusetts citizens took up arms against their new state government. This site tells the story of Shays' Rebellion, and a crucial period in our nation's founding when the survival of the republican experiment in government was neither destined nor assured.' Includes images, biographies, artifacts & documents, maps, timeline, and period music. High school and up (2008, Springfield Technical Community College and Memorial Hall Museum). See also Brothers-In-Arms AUDIO (2016, Backstory Radio; Virginia Foundation for the Humanities).

Trail of Tears - See Cherokee Removal on the Indian Tribes / Native Peoples page.

War of 1812 - A collection of brief stories and biographical sketches related to the War of 1812, with images and links to many additional resources (National Park Service). The War of 1812: Which One Was That? AUDIO is a radio program that 'sets out to answer the most fundamental questions about the War of 1812: What did we win, what did we lose, and why should we care?' (2014, Backstory Radio; Virginia Foundation for the Humanities).

Witchcraft in Salem Village - Original documents, maps, and other information (primary sources) about the Salem Witch Trials of 1692; start with the Overview of the Salem Witch Trials (2002 by Benjamin Ray and University of Virginia). See also Salem Witchcraft (2011, Richard B. Latner, Emeritus Professor of History, Tulane University).

You Be the Historian INTERACTIVE - 'Historians study the everyday lives of people who lived in the past by looking at clues: the objects and documents that people left behind and that have somehow survived.' View the objects and documents on the website and 'see if you can figure out what life was like 200 years ago for Thomas and Elizabeth Springer's family in New Castle, Delaware.' Middle school. (2000 - 2006, Smithsonian Institution)

Westward Expansion

See also:
INDIAN TRIBES & NATIVE PEOPLES
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

Buffalo Soldiers - See Buffalo Soldiers: African Americans in the Frontier Army, below.

Exploration and Expansion - Links to resources documenting explorers of the North American continent, government & railroad surveys, and Westward Expansion. (National Archives & Records Administration)

Gold Rush Sesquicentennial - Explores the people, places, experiences, and legacy of the mid-nineteenth century California gold rush (middle school and up; The Sacramento Bee newspaper). See also 1848-1865: The Gold Rush Era (high school and up; University of California).

Lewis & Clark - Includes a synopsis of the expedition from preparation through return, with selections from the journals, photographs, maps, animated graphics, and other related materials (Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation). Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition AUDIO offers complete text of the journals, with maps and audio content (University of Nebraska).

New Perspectives on the West - A fresh look at the people, places, and events that shaped the American West; includes dozens of biographies and an Events timeline . (2001 The West Film Project and WETA / PBS)

Civil War

See also:
African-American Experience
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

African-American Experience - Includes links on slavery and other topics relevant to the Civil War. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Boston Abolitionists - In the decades leading to the Civil War, Boston became a center of the national antislavery movement. This website includes important manuscripts, photographs and artifacts related to the abolitionist movement in Boston, as well as The Case for Ending Slavery, offering 'curricular resources and more than 50 primary sources that reveal how slavery, and debates about slavery, contributed to the formation of the United States.' (2013, Massachusetts Historical Society)

Civil War, 150 Years Later AUDIO - A special radio series on the war's causes and consequences; two hour-long episodes from Backstory Radio: The Road to War and Why They Fought. (2011, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities)

Civil War Battles - Brief summaries of two dozen campaigns of the United States Army, from Fort Sumter in 1861 to Appomattox in 1865. Arranged in a timeline format. (2013, U.S. Army Center of Military History)

Civil War Classroom Resources AUDIO - A collection of downloadable teacher and student materials on topics related to the Civil War, including Abraham Lincoln, African American Life in the Nineteenth Century, Black Soldiers, and more. (2012, Chicago History Museum)

Civil War in Art - Explores 'a wide range of images and objects that depict or relate to the most deadly war in the history of the United States... People living through the Civil War valued works of art as ways to understand the conflict, celebrate victories and heroes, and grieve their dead and losses. Today, as the works of art collected here show so movingly, these pieces continue to remind us of the power and significance of this momentous time in American history.' (2012 - 2013, Terra Foundation for American Art, Art Institute of Chicago, et al.)

Civil War Overview - A brief summary of the Civil War's major causes, events, and outcomes (2011, Louisiana State University, Leah W. Jewett et al.).

Civil War @ Smithsonian [Use the 'thumbnail icon' to see items in each category; click on images for larger picture and description.] - Pictures of artifacts and portraits relating to the Civil war, with descriptions. Some pages also have a 'See more' option. The site also includes a Civil War Timeline. (2002 - 2004, Smithsonian Institution)

Civil War Stories - Illustrates the social, economic, political, and military aspects of the Civil War by recounting the stories of specific people, places and events. The same site offers a Civil War Timeline of Events 1854-1877. See also The Civil War: 150 Years (2009 - 2011, National Park Service).

Crisis at Fort Sumter - Clearly explains the events and decisions which led to the Civil War. (1996 - 2011, Richard B. Latner et al., Tulane University)

Diary of a Civil War Nurse INTERACTIVE - The diaries and letters of Amanda Akin, who served as a nurse at Armory Square Hospital in Washington, D.C. for 15 months during the war, providing a glimpse into the lives of those who served and a touching record of the challenges of hospital life. Includes text, interactive primary documents, maps, and images. (2011, Smithsonian)

Discovering the Civil War VIDEO - This online exhibit takes 'a fresh look at the Civil War through little-known stories, seldom-seen documents, and unusual perspectives.' Includes articles, primary documents, & other resources, with suggestions for classroom study. (2008 - 2011, National Archives & Records Administration)

Ethnicity, Race, and the Military in the Civil War - Learn about the important role that racial and ethnic groups - including African American, Native American, Hispanic, and Irish soldiers - played in both armies during the Civil War (National Park Service). See also African-American Experience, Veterans' Stories, and Irish in the American Civil War, below, and Native Americans and the U.S. Military.

First Person Narratives of the South - Online texts (primary sources) from the Civil War and later. Includes accounts by soldiers and slaves. Part of Documenting the American South, a large collection of primary sources on southern history covering the period before the Civil War as well as the more recent past (2004, University of North Carolina). See also Slavery links, below.

Hearts at Home: Southern Women in the Civil War - 'Through letters and diaries, photographs, newspaper accounts, and personal mementos, Hearts at Home examines different aspects of southern women's experiences at home and on the battlefield during the Civil War.' (1997, University of Virginia)

Irish in the American Civil War - 'In 1860 there were 1.6 million Irish-born people living in the United States... During the war, at least 150,000 Irish-born fought for the Union, 20,000 for the Confederacy.' This blog explores Irish involvement in the Civil War. (2015; by military archaeologist Damian Shiels)

John Brown's Raid VIDEO - 'In October 1859, John Brown and twenty-one followers gained armed possession of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Their intent was to confiscate rifles stored there and with those weapons initiate a massive slave insurrection that would spread throughout the South and eventually free all of the nation's four million slaves.' Learn more about the raid and its aftermath on this website. (2010 - 2011, Virginia Historical Society)

Reconstruction - See Later 19th Century links.

Torn in Two - Maps, photographs, prints, diaries, songs and letters from before, during, and after the Civil War help illuminate some of the people & places of the era in this multimedia tour. (2011, Boston Public Library)

Underground Railroad - See Underground Railroad links, below.

Valley of the Shadow - Details life in two American towns, one in the North and one in the South, during the Civil War era. Includes letters, diaries, newspapers, maps and images. (1993-2007, Edward L. Ayers, University of Virginia)

Later 19th Century
(Reconstruction, Gilded Age, Progressive Era, etc.)

See also:
Jim Crow & the Struggle for Civil Rights
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

Age of Imperialism - 'During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe. That pivotal era in the history of our nation is the subject of this on-line history.' Covers Expansion in the Pacific, the Spanish-American War, the Boxer Rebellion, the Panama Canal, and U.S. Intervention in Latin America. Includes images, lesson plan, and bibliography (2013, Small Planet Communications, Inc.; educational publisher & development service). American Empire 'explores the origins, development, and eventual fall of the American empire... It maps the diverse and rocky terrain of the American empire to show how it informs contemporary conversations on heritage, citizenship, racism, and globalization' (2017, Digital Public Library of America). Some other relevant sites on Puerto Rico and the Spanish-American War are listed among our Latin America links.

Gilded Age - An overview of the late 19th century period often called 'the Gilded Age', plus related documents, timeline, bios, media, and more. Part of Digital History (University of Houston et al.). See also U.S. History: The Gilded Age (Scholastic, Inc.; site includes advertisements).

Progressive Era - A brief summary of the era, with links to additional resources (2011, Virginia Commonwealth University). See also Digital History: Progressive Era (University of Houston) and U.S. History: The Progressive Era (Scholastic, Inc.; site includes advertisements). Children in Progressive-Era America explores the lives & work of children during the Progressive Era of the 1890s through 1920s, the growing child welfare movement, and further changes in the lives of American children and teens after World War II. Includes photos and other primary sources; high school and up (2015, Digital Public Library of America). See also Progressive Era to New Era, below.

Reconstruction: People & Politics after the Civil War - 'This exhibit examines one of the most turbulent and controversial eras in American history. It presents an up-to-date portrait of a period whose unrealized goals of economic and racial justice still confront our society.' Part of Digital History (2003, University of Houston et al.). See also Reconstruction (National Park Service). Reconstruction in 4 Minutes VIDEO is a short video on the difficulties that a divided nation faced after the conclusion of the Civil War and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Civil War Trust; non-profit organization).

20th Century

See also:
African-American Experience
Immigrant Experience
Later 19th Century
Vietnam War
Women's History
World Wars I and II
See relevant chapters/pages in these resources:
American Memory Timeline
American Yawp
Biography of America
Digital History
Freedom: A History of US
Jump Back in Time
USA: Outline of American History
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

1900 - 1920s - See Progressive Era to New Era, 1900 - 1929, below.

1930s - See Great Depression & New Deal.

American Advertising History - 'This guide offers an overview of advertisements as historical sources and how historians use them, a brief history of advertising, questions to ask when interpreting ads as historical evidence, an annotated bibliography, and a guide to finding advertisements online' (2003, by history professor Daniel Pope; part of the History Matters website, CUNY and George Mason University). Ad Views VIDEO is a digital archive of thousands of vintage television commercials dating from the 1950s to the 1980s (2009, Duke University).

Atomic Archive VIDEO - 'Explores the complex history surrounding the invention of the atomic bomb - a crucial turning point for all mankind.' Includes original texts, eyewitness accounts, photographs, videos and full color maps (1998 - 2015, AJ Software & Multimedia, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation; site includes advertisements). Atomic Energy & Nuclear History 'traces the development of the atomic age from the discovery of radioactivity in the late 1800s to the close of the Cold War near the end of the twentieth century... [and] discusses the scientific, political and cultural ramifications of nuclear energy.' Includes primary sources; high school and up (Oregon State University Libraries). For more on nuclear weapons policy, nuclear crises, treaties, and related topics, see the National Security Archive's Nuclear Vault; high school and up (1995 - 2018, George Washington University). Nuke Pop examines how the atomic bomb was reflected in popular culture of the era, with lots of images from comics, magazines, and other primary sources. High school and up (1999 - 2001, Paul Brians, Professor of English, Washington State University). The Bomb for My Pillow is one man's reminiscence of 'growing up in the shadow of nuclear annihilation' (1980 - 2003 by Gregg Nathan Ainsworth and Betty de Losada). See also Hiroshima: Ground Zero and related links.

Automobile in American Life & Society - Explores the automobile's impact on American life. The site is divided into five sections: Design, Environment, Gender, Labor, and Race. Includes essays, archival materials from the Henry Ford collection & other depositories, plus classroom resources for students and teachers. Middle school and up. (2004 - 2010, University of Michigan)

Building the Suburban Dream - Text and images chronicle the construction, marketing, and lifestyle of Levittown, Pennsylvania, a housing development which represented the dream of suburban life in the 1950s. (2003, State Museum of Pennsylvania)

Civil Rights Movement - See African-American Experience, below.

Civilian Public Service - This site tells the story of nearly 12,000 conscientious objectors (citizens who resist compulsory military service for religious or ethical reasons) who chose Civilian Public Service rather than military service in World War II. (Mennonite Central Committee et al.)

Cold War [CAUTION: This site includes links to pre-formed Google searches.] - A timeline of events in the Cold War, from the 1940s through the 1990s, with a brief description of each event and links to additional information. Also includes stories and a trivia game (Cold War Museum; site includes advertisements). See also Cold War: A Brief History (1998 - 2015, AJ Software & Multimedia, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation; site includes advertisements). See also Cuban Missile Crisis, below.

Conversations with America AUDIO - 'Man-on-the-street' interviews recorded by Studs Terkel over several decades, covering the Great Depression, World War II, race relations, and more. Choose a section, then scroll down to get to the recordings. High school and up. (2002, Chicago Historical Society et al.)

Cuban Missile Crisis: Armageddon Letters - 'In October 1962, human civilization came close to being destroyed. During the Cuban missile crisis... Armageddon might have occurred if leaders in Washington and Moscow hadn't stopped in their tracks, turned around 180 degrees and raced away from the brink in a panic at the foreshadowed doomsday.' This site presents the events of the Cuban missile crisis in the form of a graphic novel. For high school students (2012, Professor James Blight et al., Balsillie School of International Affairs). See also World on the Brink & To the Brink: JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis (2002 - 2012, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum), and Cold War, above.

Days of Infamy AUDIO - 'Within the living memory of Americans are two deadly surprise attacks against the United States: Japan's assault on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Both times, the Library of Congress sent people out to record the voices of ordinary Americans as they reacted to a changed world.' Includes audio of radio show (other audio clips may not play) and slideshows (2002, American Radio Works; site includes advertisements). See also Remembering Pearl Harbor INTERACTIVE (2001, National Geographic). After the Day of Infamy AUDIO presents 'man-on-the-street' reactions of ordinary Americans to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war by the United States, with 'a wide diversity of opinion concerning the war and other social and political issues of the day, such as racial prejudice and labor disputes. The result is a portrait of everyday life in America as the United States entered World War II' (2003, Library of Congress). See also September 11, 2001, below.

Eisenhower Presidental Library (1950s) - Offers brief overviews plus related primary documents for a number of important subjects from the 1950s and WWI & WWII, including various aspects of the Civil Rights struggle, Korean War, Interstate Highway System, McCarthyism, Sputnik & the Space Race, Atoms for Peace, Rosenberg Trial, Salk Polio Vaccine, U-2 Spy Plane Incident, D-Day, The Invasion of Normandy, Holocaust, Jacqueline Cochran & the Women's Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs), Women in the 1950s, and more.

The Great Depression & New Deal - Answers basic questions about the Great Depression, such as What was the Great Depression? How high was unemployment during the Great Depression? What was FDR's program to end the Great Depression? Did the New Deal end the Great Depression? and more. High school and up (Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum). The Living New Deal explains what the New Deal was, with a timeline of New Deal legislation and events, short bios of major New Deal figures, information on New Deal programs, descriptions of New Deal sites across the U.S., and links to other resources (University of California et al.). You can listen to Fireside Chats and other FDR audio AUDIO (2016, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library), or read the full text of FDR's Fireside Chats (1999 - 2011, American Presidency Project; Gerhard Peters / The American Presidency Project, University of California). See also Wall Street Crash (1929), below.

Living Room Candidate VIDEO - Extensive video archive of Presidential campaign television and web commercials from 1952 to the present. Includes commentary, historical background, and election results; organized by year, type of commercial, and issue. (2016, American Museum of the Moving Image)

National Archives Videos VIDEO - Historic video (under the heading Inside the Vaults) from United Newsreel, NASA, and the Department of Interior, covering World War II, the space program, national parks, and more. You can search for a specific subject by clicking on the MAGNIFYING GLASS icon next to 'About' in the National Archives Channel menu. (National Archives online videos are now hosted on YouTube; site includes advertisements).

National Security Archive - A collection of declassified national security documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Includes primary source materials (documents and audio) related to the 1953 coup against Iranian Premier Mohammad Mossadeq, the Cuban Missile Crisis, Pentagon Papers, Iran-Contra Affair, 1986 Reagan-Gorbachev Summit, Iraq War, and numerous other international policy subjects, covering more than 50 years up to the present; high school and up. (1995 - 2016, George Washington University)

New Deal - See Great Depression & New Deal, above.

Progressive Era to New Era, 1900 - 1929 - An overview of the early 20th century, an era of business expansion and progressive reform in the United States. Also explores related topics within this time period such as automobiles, cities, conservation, immigrants, prohibition, World War I, and women's suffrage (Library of Congress). See also Progressive Era, above.

Prohibition: Indomitable Spirits - Explains the causes and lasting consequences of the movement to ban alcoholic beverages in the U.S. (2013, Digital Public Library of America). See also Temperance & Prohibition (2003 - 2011, Ohio State University), and Temperance and Prohibition Era Propaganda (2004, Leah Rae Berk; Brown University). High school and up.

Red Scare - Describes the nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, and other dissidents which seized the nation from 1919-1921 (2004; by Paul Burnett, 2L, and Professor Douglas O. Linder, University of Missouri Law School). For the communist scare of the 1950s, see McCarthyism (2009, Eisenhower Presidential Library) and The Second Red Scare (2014 by Kyle Wilkison, Professor of History, Collin County Community College).

Route 66 - Route 66, stretching from Chicago to Los Angeles, occupies a special place in the American imagination. It has been the subject or setting of novels, films, songs and stories. This website uses text and images to explore the history of Route 66, from its origins in ancient Native American footpaths to the iconic highway of the 20th century. High school and up. (2009 - 2010, Northern Arizona University)

September 11, 2001 - An overview of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, including historical background and aftermath. For more on the history of terrorism, see Terrorism in Historical Perspective (both from University of Houston). The September 11 Television Archive VIDEO contains television news programs recorded live from around September 11, 2001. The September 11 Digital Archive AUDIO VIDEO offers a collection of eyewitnesses accounts, images, and other resources related to September 11, as well as 9/11 FAQs (City University of New York and George Mason University). You can view the original, unedited Newspaper Front Pages, September 12, 2001 from 147 newspapers in 19 countries on the day after the attacks (Newseum). You can read the reports of the 9/11 Commission on its archived site. The New York Times' Remembering September 11 AUDIO VIDEO is an archive of articles, photographs, oral histories, and video clips about 9/11 and its aftermath (site includes advertisements). The September 11 Documentary Project AUDIO VIDEO includes almost 200 audio and video interviews, 45 graphic items, and 21 written narratives capturing the reactions, opinions, and eyewitness accounts of Americans and others in the months that followed the terrorist attacks; use the left-hand menu to navigate (Library of Congress). See also Days of Infamy, above.

Sixties Project: Psychedelic Sixties - Examines all aspects of the 1960s, including social protest, rock music, hippies, drug use, and 19th- and 20th-century precursors (1998 - 2009, University of Virginia). High school and up. 1968: The Whole World Was Watching [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] contains transcripts and edited stories of a series of interviews recollecting the year 1968, which include references to the Vietnam War, the struggle for Civil Rights, the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy as well as many more personal memories; a living history of one of the most tumultuous years in United States history (created in 1998; South Kingstown [RI] High School and Brown University). Campaign '68 AUDIO is an audio program looking back at the 1968 presidential contest, a watershed event shaped by a controversial war, fractious race relations, and the rising power of television. Includes timeline, links, transcipt, and more; high school and up (2008, American Public Radio; site includes advertisements).

Space Program - See SCIENCE: Astronomy, Planets, and Space Flight.

Temperance & Prohibition - See Prohibition, above.

Wall Street Crash (1929) [Archived page] - Explains why the crash happened and how it affected people (BBC). See also The Crash of '29 (1999, New York Times) and After the Crash (2009, Library of Congress). See also Great Depression & New Deal, above.

Watergate Papers - A brief overview of events leading to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974, with original notes, letters, and other documents (primary sources) from Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, the two Washington Post reporters who broke the Watergate story. (University of Texas)

Wessels Living History Farm - See Food & Farming Links.

White House Tapes AUDIO - Between 1940 and 1973, six consecutive American presidents from FDR through Nixon secretly taped thousands of their meeting and telephone conversations. This site offers all the presidential recordings (primary sources), along with some transcripts and related research materials. High school and up. (University of Virginia)

African-American Experience

See also:
Africa
ETHNIC / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

GENERAL AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY RESOURCES

Facts on File: African-American History OnlineAFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY ONLINE (Facts on File) Provides expansive and in-depth information on the people, events, and topics important to the study of African-American history. If you're logging on at home, you'll need to enter your name, library card barcode number, and PIN to get started.

See more on our Homework links for
ETHNIC / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES: African & African-American

African American History and Culture: Exhibitions - Online exhibits relating to arts & entertainment, slavery & freedom, racism & civil rights, military experience, sports, and other aspects of black history and culture. (National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian). African American History Month NEW! AUDIO VIDEO highlights many additional exhibits and collections on African American history and culture in the Library of Congress, National Archives, National Park Service, and other federal institutions; organized by subject. EDSITEment's Guide to Black History Month Resources NEW! offers a comprehensive collection of vetted websites and lessons on African American history and literature arranged roughly by historical period; for K-12 teachers and students (National Endowment for the Humanities).

African American History: Timeline - A chronological overview of African American history from before 1600 to 2009, with links to additional information on key topics. The same site also offers Online Encyclopedia of African American History featuring short articles (with images) about people, places, organizations, and events which have contributed to the shaping of African American history (2007 - 2017, BlackPast.org; Quintard Taylor, Professor of American History, University of Washington).

African-American Migration Experience - Focuses on both voluntary and forced migrations of peoples of African descent, beginning with the transatlantic slave trade and, in the 1500s, the first Africans coming from Mexico and the Caribbean to the Spanish territories of the American South, followed by successive generations moving to the north, south, and west. Includes text, images, maps, and other materials, in Flash and non-Flash versions; high school and up. (Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library)

African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship - Explores black America's quest for equality from the early national period through the twentieth century, with text, documents, and images; arranged chronologically. (2008, Library of Congress)

African American Religion - An overview of history of the African-American religion, 'from the earliest African-European encounters along the west coast of Africa in the mid-fifteenth century to the present day.' Divided into three parts, with a bibliography of recommended resources. Companion site to a multi-volume book series; high school and up. (2006, Amherst College)

Congressional Black Caucus - See Black Leadership and related links.

Culture & Change: Black History in America AUDIO - Profiles of famous African Americans, inventors & inventions, an audio history of jazz music, and an interactive timeline. Elementary and middle school. (Scholastic Inc.; site includes advertisements)

Harlem Renaissance - See Harlem Renaissance: Drop Me Off in Harlem.

History Makers VIDEO - These video interviews, with thousands of both well-known and unsung African-Americans, offer messages of leadership, achievement and perseverance. Those interviewed are drawn from a wide variety of fields including arts, entertainment, media, politics, science, sports, business, and more. (The HistoryMakers, non-profit organization; site includes advertisements)

New Jersey History: Afro-Americans in New Jersey - This online report covers the colonial period through the 1980s. You can view each section separately or download the entire report - scroll down for the table of contents. PDF format (1989; by Giles R. Wright, New Jersey Historical Commission).

New York History: The African-American Experience in New York - Brief biographies, with pictures, of notable African-American New Yorkers, covering the early Civil Rights Movements, arts & letters, science & business, sports, and politics. (New York Hall of Governors)

Say It Plain, Say It Loud: Great African American Speeches AUDIO - You can read and/or listen to an hour-long radio show to learn about the tradition of powerful black political orators in the United States, or click on the name of one of a dozen featured speakers (including Marcus Garvey, Fannie Lou Hamer, Stokely Carmichael, Shirley Chisholm, and Barack Obama) to read their biographies and read or hear one of their speeches. (American Public Media; site includes advertisements)


SLAVERY

Africans in America - Explores the history of slavery in America from 1450 to 1865; arranged chronologically (1998, WGBH Educational Foundation; PBS). Slavery and the Making of America [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] documents the history of American slavery from its beginnings in the British colonies to its end, looking at slavery as an integral part of a developing nation while also focusing on the experiences of slaves. Examines the role of art, music, and education in the lives of slaves and recounts the remarkable stories of individual slaves (2004, PBS; site includes advertisements).

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives contains thousands of first-person accounts (primary sources) of slavery, collected in the 1930s (2001, Library of Congress). North American Slave Narratives 'collects books and articles that document the individual and collective story of African Americans struggling for freedom and human rights in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries' (2004, University of North Carolina). For smaller selections of narratives, see Voices from the Days of Slavery AUDIO (2009, Library of Congress) or American Slave Narratives (1998, University of Virginia). High school and up.

Civil War - Includes links on the Underground Railroad and other topics related to the African-American experience. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Colonial African Americans NEW! AUDIO - A look at the everyday life of African-Americans in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia. Includes audio podcasts. (Colonial Williamsburg)

Slave Voyages - Essays on the history of slavery and the Transatlantic slave trade, plus related resources. For teachers and students, grades 6-12 (2007 - 2009, Emory University). Captive Passage examines the Transatlantic slave trade and its legacies in the modern world. Includes maps and other images (2002, Mariners' Museum). Voyage of the Slave Ship Sally retraces the journey of a single 18th century Rhode Island slave ship, from its initial preparation through the long months on the African coast, to the auctioning of surviving captives on the West Indian island of Antigua; high school and up (Brown University). See also England and the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

Slavery in New York - Online slide show exploring the history of slaves and slavery in New York, from the city's role the Atlantic slave trade, through the Revolutionary War, to the end of slavery in New York in 1827. Website may be slow to load and navigate. (2005 - 2011, New York Historical Society)

Underground Railroad - Essays on slavery & the Underground Railroad, brief stories and information about the people & places associated with the Underground Railroad; scroll down the left-hand menu to the heading Discover Underground Railroad History to access research reports, timeline, maps, photos, terminology, and lesson plans (National Park Service). Underground Railroad: The Struggle Against Slavery VIDEO offers an extensive encyclopedia, interviews, and other learning resources which 'bring to life the great history of the Underground Railroad and those who traversed it.' High school and up (2012; Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, Detroit MI).

Understanding Slavery Initiative [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] - A wealth of materials for teaching and learning about the transatlantic slavery and its legacies, from Europe & Africa before transatlantic slavery to the modern era (2011, National Maritime Museum [UK] et al.).


JIM CROW, CIVIL RIGHTS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EQUALITY

See more on our Homework links for
ETHNIC / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES: African & African-American

Banished: American Ethnic Cleansings [Archived page] - 'From the 1860s to the 1920s, towns across the U.S. violently expelled African American residents. Today, these communities remain virtually all white.' This companion website to an Independent Lens documentary examines the people and places involved in 'the hidden history of racial cleansing in America.' High school and up. (2007, Center for Investigative Reporting and Two Tone Productions / PBS; site includes advertisements)

Black Leadership - See Black Leadership and related links.

Brown v. Board of Education - Summary, oral history, court opinions, and other materials related to the historically significant Supreme Court case which denied the legal basis for segregation of public schools. Click on 'About Brown v. Board' from the top menu for related info (2010, Brown Foundation). With an Even Hand: Brown v. Board at 50 (2010, Library of Congress) and Separate is Not Equal (2009, Smithsonian Institution) offer additional resources on this topic. From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans provides background readings, images, and educational activities that explore historic events in Canterbury, Connecticut, and Little Rock, Arkansas, which tested the prevailing assumptions of the time regarding racial integration of schools (2010, National Park Service).

Civil Rights Movement: Explore 1963, The Struggle for Civil Rights AUDIO VIDEO - Explores the inside story of key events in civil rights history through the words and actions of the people who lived it. Includes primary source material such as press conferences, letters, photographs, and film footage of the peaceful March on Washington. Also includes lesson plans for elementary through high school (2016, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). Finishing the Dream: Learning from the Civil Rights Era VIDEO is a collection of short videos on a variety of civil rights topics (2011, NBC-TV). Civil Rights Digital Library AUDIO VIDEO provides brief background essays with links to additional primary sources and other materials on a wide range of topics relating to the civil rights movement. You can browse the site by Events, Places, People, Topics, or media type, or search by keyword. High school and up (2013, Digital Library of Georgia).

Freedom Riders - See King Encyclopedia entry.

Freedom Summer: Oh Freedom AUDIO - Radio documentary recounting events surrounding the murders of three young civil rights workers in Mississippi during the summer of 1964. Includes story text and interviews (2001, American Public Media; site includes advertisements). See also King Encyclopedia entry.

Jim Crow History [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] - Explores the history of racial segration in the U.S. from the 1870s through the 1950s. Includes a timeline, maps, personal narratives, photos, documents, and more (2002 Educational Broadcasting Corporation / WNET NY; site includes advertisements). In the radio documentary Remembering Jim Crow AUDIO, Americans - black and white - remember life in the Jim Crow times (2013, American Public Media; site includes advertisements).

Martin Luther King Jr. Institute AUDIO - Biography, encyclopedia of the civil rights movement UPDATED LINK!, and other resources related to Martin Luther King Jr. Also includes an animated, interactive presentation of Dr. King's ''I Have a Dream'' speech, and a Major King Events Chronology (Timeline): 1929-1968 (Stanford University). See also About Dr. King NEW! & The King Center Digital Archive NEW! (The King Center; non-profit organization), and The Real Martin Luther King NEW! AUDIO (Backstory Radio).

NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom - Examines the major personalities, events, and achievements of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) during its first 100 years. Covers the founding and early years of the NAACP, the 'New Negro Movement', the Great Depression, World War II & the Post War Years, and the Civil Rights Era. Includes photos, primary documents, and an interactive timeline. (2009, Library of Congress)

Tuskegee Airmen UPDATED LINK! - A brief overview of the World War II 'Tuskegee Airmen', who overcame many obstacles to be allowed to train and fight as the first black U.S. Army Air Corps pilots. Site includes many photos and links to additional resources (Commemorative Air Force; non-profit organization). See also Legends of Tuskegee (National Park Service). Tuskegee Army Nurses NEW! AUDIO VIDEO tells the story of the black women who served in the Army Nurse Corps during World War II at Tuskegee Army Air Field (by Pia Marie Winters Jordan, assistant professor at Morgan State University). The Buffalo Soldiers examines the contributions of 'Buffalo Soldiers', African-American men who served in the military after the Civil War (National Park Service). To learn more about African-Americans in the military during the 19th century, see also Ethnicity, Race, and the Military in the Civil War, above. For more historical resources on African-Americans service in the U.S. military, see Veterans' Stories and related links, above.

Immigrant Experience

See also:
African-American Experience
ETHNIC / MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES
Facts on File databases EBSCO Explora
Salem History

Angel Island UPDATED LINK! - Opened in California in 1910, Angel Island is sometimes called the 'Ellis Island of the West', but was mainly built to control the flow of Chinese into the country after the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. This page provides an overview of Chinese immigration since 1848, as well as Japanese, Koreans, and other groups who entered the U.S. through Angel Island (Angel Island Immigration Station Foundation). Chinese American: Exclusion/Inclusion 'chronicles the complex history of the Chinese in America - the challenges of immigration, citizenship, and belonging that shaped both the Chinese American experience and the development of the United States as a nation' (2014, New York Historical Society).

Arab Americans: Coming to America [Click on 'Launch Interactive Exhibit' to start.] - Traces immigration from the Arab world to the United States, with a focus on the time period from the 1880s to the present era, and explores how Arab Americans have lived and contributed to life in America. (2006, Arab American National Museum)

Be a Historian: Immigration INTERACTIVE - This well-designed interactive site invites you to help in developing a museum display about immigration to America. Focus is on Iowa, but much of the material presented applies to American immigration generally. Middle school and up. (2005, Silos and Smokestacks National Heritage Area / Grout Museum of History & Science)

Destination America [NOTE: Archived page; some media features do not work.] - Background materials on the history of immigration to the U.S., including essays, personal stories, photos, timelines, quiz, and related resources; companion website for the PBS TV series. (2005, Educational Broadcasting Corporation; site includes advertisements)

Ellis Island: Immigration Timeline - Click a spot on the timeline for an infographic and description of any period in immigration history through 2000 (2001, Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation; site includes advertisements). The Immigration to the United States Timeline, 1789-1930 presents key dates and landmarks in United States immigration history, from 1789 to 1940, with links to primary documents (Harvard University).

Ethnic & Multicultural Resources - Selected links to information about the history and culture of various ethnic, racial, and other population groups, including African & African-American, Arab-American & Muslim, Asian & Asian-American, Jewish, European-American (Irish, Italian, German), Hispanic-American & Latino, Indian Tribes & Native Peoples, women, people with disabilities, and more. (South Plainfield Public Library)

Ethnic America: Voices - Primary sources and related materials on a diversity of American ethnic groups. High school and up. (Digital History, University of Houston)

Immigrate: From Ellis Island to Orchard Street VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Get a little taste of what it was like to be a new immigrant to U.S. in 1916! In this virtual journey you will create an immigrant character and passport, sail across the Atlantic, go through inspection at Ellis Island, and finally to build a life as a new immigrant in New York City. (2014, Lower East Side Tenement Museum)

Immigration Stories VIDEO INTERACTIVE - 'Find out what it means to come to the United States as an immigrant from the early 20th century through the early 21st century,' through personal stories, a virtual tour of Ellis Island, immigration data charts, and more. For middle school students. (Scholastic Inc.; site includes advertisements)

Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930 - A large searchable collection of selected historical materials, including many primary resources, concentrating heavily on the 19th century. Thousands of books and photographs, and 13,000 pages from manuscript and archival collections. 'By incorporating diaries, biographies, and other writings capturing diverse experiences, the collected material provides a window into the lives of ordinary immigrants.' High school and up. (Harvard University)

Japanese-American Internment in World War II - See Dear Miss Breed and related links.

Jewish Life in America - A description of Jewish immigration, particularly during the period 1820-1924, and 350 years of Jewish life in America, with photographs of related documents and artifacts (2010, Library of Congress). See also The Jewish-Americans VIDEO, covering Jewish American history from the first Jews to arrive in New Amsterdam in 1654, to Jewish life in modern America. Includes special topics such as anti-semitism, responses to the Holocaust, Jews in sports and the arts, and more. With video clips. (PBS et al; site includes advertisements)

Statue of Liberty - A short article about the statue's history, with links to fun facts, pictures, and more (Statue of Liberty - Ellis Island Foundation). See also Statue of Liberty History & Culture (National Park Service).

Triangle Factory Fire AUDIO - Primary documents, recorded interviews, photos, and a textual history of the 1911 fire at the Triangle Waist Company in New York City, which claimed the lives of 146 young immigrant workers. (2011, Cornell University)

revised 5/18 jd

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