Facts on File: Science Online - Presents a broad range of scientific disciplines through extensive definitions, essays, diagrams, biographies, and experiments. If you're using Science Online on your home computer, you'll have to enter your name, library card barcode, and PIN to begin.
EBSCO Science Reference Center is no longer available.
GREENFILE - A collection of scholarly, government and general-interest titles covering all aspects of human impact to the environment. Includes content on global warming, green building, pollution, sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, recycling, and more. For high school and up. If you're using GREENFILE on your home computer, you'll have to enter your name, library card barcode, and PIN to begin.
Ask A Scientist! - Browse / search the archives to find answers to all kinds of puzzling questions such as 'Where does the salt in the sea come from?' 'How do bugs stick to the wall?' and 'Why do boomerangs come back when you throw them?' Or ask your own question! Middle school and up (Cornell University). You can also search for answers to your science questions (high school and up) in the Science Line archives (University of California), and on Scientific American's Ask the Experts and Ask the Brains pages (site includes advertisements). Everyday Mysteries will help you get the answers many of life's most interesting questions, such as 'Did you ever wonder why a camel has a hump? If you can really tell the weather by listening to the chirp of a cricket? Or why our joints make popping sounds? Arranged by subject. Mostly for high school and up, though links may include good sites for younger students (2010, Library of Congress). Science Kids also provides 'answers to some of those perplexing questions about Science and Nature'; high school and up (Hany Farid, professor of computer science at Dartmouth College).
Bitesize Science (KS3) - 'Want to know about the details that make up all living things? You'll find out that they deal with energy, chemical and physical properties.' This British educational site offers basic lessons on organisms, behaviour & health, chemical & material behaviour, energy, electricity & forces, and rock types, astronomy, & the environment. Also includes activities and quizzes; for middle school students [Click on a topic, then click 'REVISE' for lessons]. See Bitesize Science (KS2) for elementary school students. (British Broadcasting Corporation)
Children's University : Science - Interactive science lessons and quizzes for K-6, covering the body & medicines, energy & the environment, earth & beyond, teeth & eating, micro-organisms, the brain & senses, and exercise. (University of Manchester, UK)
Cogito - This website is designed specifically for young people who are interested in math and science. Cogito offers news and features on topics ranging from global warming and biostatistics to cold fusion and bioethics, plus many other resources including interviews and discussion forums, book and movie reviews, 'Best of the Web' guides, webcasts & podcasts, and listings and reviews of summer and distance-education programs, internships, and academic competitions. (John Hopkins University et al.)
EurekAlert - The latest news in scientific research, directly from research institutions, universities, government agencies, and corporations; arranged by subject; searchable archives. For college or advanced high school students; site includes advertisements. There is now a separate Kids' page for middle school and up (American Association for the Advancement of Science). Futurity.org 'features the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia... in an effort to share research news directly with the public' (non-profit site, supported by dozens of university partners).
Exploratorium Museum of Science, Art, and Human Perception - Museum website offering engaging interactive and multimedia presentations, with a focus on investigating the science behind the ordinary subjects and experiences of people's lives, and the historical and social issues that surround them. Includes the Exploratorium Digital Library, a collection of online science materials covering a broad range of topics, organized by subject. Appropriate grade level, elementary through college, is specified for each resource.
FOSSweb Science Fun - Interactive games and other science learning resources for students in grades K-2, grades 3-6, and grades 6-8; free registration required for full access (Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, and School Specialty, Inc.). The Concord Coalition's STEM Resources website features free, open source educational activities, models and software tools for elementary school through college; you can search by keyword or filter by subject, grade level and type (non-profit organization).
Franklin Institute Learning Resources - Explore a variety of scientific subjects including the human heart & brain, the history of science & technology, and more. Age level varies. (Franklin Institute Science Museum, Philadelphia; site includes advertisements)
Girls Go Tech is now Science, Technology, Engineering and Math for Girls, below.
Great Amateurs in Science - Brief stories of ten amateur scientists who made enormous contributions to science. (1996 - 2002, WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements)
History of Science - A brief overview of the history of science from 4000 BC to the birth of modern science in the 17th through 20th centuries; middle school and up (2002, WETA / PBS; site includes advertisements). Museum of the History of Science offers a collection of more than 30 online exhibits on numerous aspects of the history of science; for high school and up (1995 - 2011, Oxford University, UK). See also An Introduction to the History of Science in Non-Western Traditions; for high school and up (2009, History of Science Society). Doing Biology presents 17 historical case studies which explore the nature of scientific experiments, the role of culture or personality in discovery, interactions among alternative theories, and more. High school and up. NOTE: Each case study is presented as a PDF, slow to download/open (By Joel Hagen, Douglas Allchin & Fred Singer. Doing Biology was originally published by Harper Collins, 1996).
Interactive Simulations - A large collection of animated simulations covering dozens of topics in physics, biology, chemistry, earth science, math, and cutting-edge research. On the left-hand menu, you can select a topic or view sims by Grade Level, elementary school through university. JAVA is required to view sims. (University of Colorado)
Inventors and Inventions - Selected links to the best websites on inventors and inventions. (South Plainfield Public Library)
K8 Science - 'Reliable, up-to-date information and educational tools in life, physical, and earth/space sciences appropriate for grades K-8.' Includes lesson plans & demos, nature news, audio podcasts, video, and other science education resources. (Baylor College of Medicine)
KidsClick Science & Math - A directory of math and science websites designed for kids, arranged by subject. Each entry provides a description of the site and its intended age group. (Ramapo Catskill Library System)
National Science Foundation : Discoveries - Articles about the latest discoveries and innovations that began with NSF support, including projects in cybersafety, green energy, extrasolar planets, robotics, ecosystems, and much more. You can search Discoveries by keyword, or browse by broad topics; use the lefthand menu to navigate. High school and up. (National Science Foundation, an independent federal agency)
Nature Science Videos - Free online videos about recent research studies, featuring interviews with scientists behind the research, and analysis from Nature editors. Covers all the sciences. Nature also offers Nature News; articles listed under 'News' are free; some other items on the page may be available only to paid subscribers. High school and up. (Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited; site includes advertisements)
Nova Labs - The NOVA Labs website allows you to actively participate in the scientific process. 'From predicting solar storms and designing renewable energy systems to tracking cloud movements and learning cybersecurity strategies, NOVA Labs participants can take part in real-world investigations by visualizing, analyzing, and sharing the same data that scientists use. Each Lab is unique, and focuses on a different area of active research. But all of them illustrate key concepts with engaging and informative videos and guide participants as they answer scientific questions or design solutions to current problems. Experts in the field are available as well to answer users' questions and to propose new routes of investigation.' (PBS)
Ology - Colorful lessons with lots of fun activities to help you learn about archaeology, astronomy, biodiversity, earth science, Einstein, genetics, marine biology, zoology and more. Middle school and up. Resources for Learning offers hundreds of additional activities, articles, and analyses on anthropology, astronomy, biology, earth science, and paleontology. For all ages (American Museum of Natural History). You'll find more fun learning resources on Kids Only ; elementary through high school (Natural History Museum of London, UK).
Planet Science - Science features, activities, experiments and online adventures, for age 11 and up. There are separate sections for kids under 11 and for parents & teachers. (National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts, UK)
Pulse of the Planet - A collection of daily two-minute sound recordings, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. (National Science Foundation)
Rough Science : Discover More - Includes 'A Brief History of Science' (with timeline), plus articles on the art of science and what science is all about. Also offers hands-on activities for Grades 5-8 and Grades 9-12. (2002, WETA / PBS; site includes advertisements)
School Science - Links to a wide range of science resources (mostly British) for students. [Separate sections for ages 5-7, 7-11, 11-14, 14-16, and 16-19. Use the right-hand menu to choose a grade level.] Also includes resources for teachers. (Association for Science Education, UK)
Science 360 - Videos from around the world on the latest cutting-edge discoveries and big science stories of the day. Covers Astronomy & Space, Chemistry, Earth & Environment, K-12 Education, Life Sciences, Mathematics, Medical Sciences, People & Society, Physics, and Technology & Engineering. (National Science Foundation)
Science and Math Games & Puzzles - A collection of games & puzzles including math games, hangman, crossword puzzles, word scrambles and more. Middle school and up. (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)
Science Animations - Links to dozens of movies & interactive tutorials, arranged by subject. Covers Anatomy & Physiology, Biology, Animals, Plants, Ecology, Microbiology, Astronomy, Geology, Physics, and general science collections. Created in 2009, expect some broken links. Grade level varies. (North Harris Montgomery Community College District, TX)
Science, Art & Technology - Explores the areas where art and science overlap, covering topics such as perception, art conservation, and the chemistry & physics of light & color. Includes text, images, and video clips. High school and up (Art Institute of Chicago). The Tinkering Studio features a collection of inventive activities for exploring 'art, science, technology, and delightful ideas' (Exploratorium Museum).
Science Explorations - Interactive multimedia presentations guide you on fascinating explorations of the natural world and space. Features include Charles Darwin, bats, giant squid, lizards & snakes, insects, and gravity, orbits & collisions. Mostly for grades K-8. (Scholastic Inc. / American Museum of Natural History)
Science from the Poles - A special series of Webcasts highlighting the work of scientists at field sites surrounding the North and South Poles; projects cover a variety of subjects including ecology, wildlife, climate change, geology, and astronomy. High school and up. (2007 - 2010, Exploratorium Museum)
Science Net Links - Selected and annotated links to K-12 math and science lessons, tools, afterschool activities, and more; you can search by keywords, subject and grade level (American Association for the Advancement of Science). See also NSTA Learning Center (National Science Teachers Association).
Science News for Kids - Read the latest scientific news, with experiments, puzzles & games, Web resources, recommended reading, and other useful materials. For ages 9 to 13. (Society for Science & the Public, non-profit organization; site includes advertisements)
Science Photo Library - Need pictures of amoebas, bacteria, or leaf venation for your science paper? Polar bears or butterflies? Comets or quasars? Caves or coral reefs? This is the place to go! Covers all areas of science (commercial site). You can find more microscopic images at Science and Photography Through the Microscope (by Dennis Kunkel, Ph.D.) and Microscope Imaging Station (formerly Life through the Lens) (Exploratorium Museum).
Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) for Girls : I Was Wondering - Games and other resources to help girls develop an interest in math, science and technology. Middle school and up (National Academy of Sciences). For more links, see Great Science Resources for Girls (Educational Equity Center and National Science Foundation).
Science Update Podcasts - Daily 60-second audio reports on the latest discoveries in science, technology and medicine. Science Updates are 60-second student-friendly radio programs presenting current science research, selected from the Science Update Podcasts. Science Multimedia pulls together a variety of online media features including podcasts, video, and interactives from Science Magazine. High school and up. (The above sites are from the American Association for the Advancement of Science; sites may include advertisements). For more audio science news, see BBC Science in Action (British Broadcasting Corporation), NPR Research News and NPR Science (both from National Public Radio; site includes advertisements). High school and up. The Boston Museum of Science weekly podcasts offer an in-depth look at the latest in science and technology. A Moment of Science is a two-minute radio program that answers thousands of questions about the world we live; middle school and up (Indiana University et al.).
The Scientific Process - Examines the method scientists use to come up with explanations for the things that happen around us. Choose Beginner, Intermediate, or Advanced version at the top of each page (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements). Print out the Scientific Process Log [Archived site] to record each step of the scientific process used in a scientific investigation of your own (NASA). See also What is Scientific Method? (NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory).
Smithsonian Magazine : Science & Nature - Feature articles on a wide variety of subjects relating to science, technology, and nature. High school and up. (Educational / site includes advertisements)
Study Jams - Colorful multimedia lessons on a variety of math and science subjects, with videos, slide shows, and songs to help you learn, and quizzes to test what you've learned. Elementary and middle school. (Scholastic.com)
Symphony of Science - An unusual and inspiring collection of music remix videos, 'designed to deliver scientific knowledge and philosophy in musical form'. Middle school and up (By John D. Boswell, with featured figures and visuals from the classic PBS series Cosmos and other sources. Site includes advertisements). See also Sing About Science & Math ; elementary school through college (Greg Crowther, Ph.D., et al.).
Understanding Science 101 - Explains what science is, how it works, and why it matters, with advice on untangling media messages and public policies. For students and teachers, grades K-16. (University of California at Berkeley et al.)
Virtual Science Exhibits - Online science exhibits on astronomy, Antarctica, electron microscopy, oceanography, Leonardo da Vinci, artificial intelligence, fireflies, and Ancient Egypt [Scroll to DIGITAL EXHIBITS, then click 'Check out the rest of the digital exhibits']. Age level varies for different exhibits; middle school and up (Museum of Science, Boston). You'll find links to more online science exhibits on other topics at the Science Learning Network (2002).
Why Files - Articles about science and how it affects everyday life. You can browse by general subject or enter a specific search term such as 'mosquitoes,' 'cloning,' or 'global warming'. Includes interactives for Grades 5-8 [UPDATED LINK!] and Grades 9-12 [UPDATED LINK!]. (2002 - 2011, University of Wisconsin)
World of Science - Encyclopedias of astronomy, scientific biography, chemistry, and physics. Includes linked cross-references. Mostly for high school and up, though middle school students may find the biography section useful; most biographies are short and include an image. (Wolfram Research / Eric W. Weisstein, with assistance from the internet community)
Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students - Advice, samples, and exercises designed to help students write effectively about science. Also includes materials for instructors. For college and advanced high school students (2010; by Michael Alley, Penn State University). See also Writing in the Sciences (University of North Carolina).
Amazing Space Glossary - Definitions of terms from space science, astronomy, and related fields. High school and up (Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute). See also Imagine the Universe! Dictionary (2004, NASA).
Apollo 13, We Have a Solution - This article details the real-life events that led to the safe return of the Apollo 13 spacecraft in 1970, which was dramatized in the movie Apollo 13. High school and up. (2005, IEEE Spectrum Magazine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; site includes advertisements)
Astronomy Center - Selected links to astronomy-related information, arranged by subject. Grade level varies, though the majority of resources are for high school and up. (American Astronomical Society et al.)
Astronomy News - For news about the latest discussions and discoveries in astronomy, see this companion site for Astronomy Magazine. Includes podcasts and video. High school and up. (Kalmbach Publishing; site includes advertisements)
Astro-Venture - 'Is the Earth unique? Is there another planet that could support human life? What are the requirements for human habitation?' On this interactive site, middle school students learn about Astronomy, Geology, Biology and Atmospheric Science by searching for and building a planet where humans could live. (2009 - 2012, NASA)
Auroras, Paintings in the Sky - Explains what auroras look like, why they happen, why they are different colors, and where you can see them; photos included. Middle school and up. (2001, University of California)
Black Holes - 'Black holes are places where ordinary gravity has become so extreme that it overwhelms all other forces in the Universe.' This interactive media site takes you on a Journey to a Black Hole. Site also includes an encyclopedia and glossary (2007, Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute). McDonald Observatory's Black Holes Encyclopedia offers black hole basics, as well as the latest news on black holes, FAQ, glossary, pop culture references, radio programs, a directory of black holes, and related resources. High school and up (University of Texas).
Challenger Accident - Astronaut biographies and other resources related to the January 28, 1986 the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger. You can also see a similar page on the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident. For information on other Space Shuttle missions, see NASA's Space Shuttle page. (NASA)
Chandra Observatory - Articles, news, photos, podcasts, and videos on astronomy. High school and up. (Harvard University)
Comets - Basic definition with picture and links to more information. Elementary school and up (2009, NASA). See also Windows to the Universe : Comets for elementary school and up (2004, National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements).
Dark Energy - Learn about the mysterious energy causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate (2009, NASA).
Dark Matter - Q & A about mysterious 'dark matter' whose existence cannot be confirmed by the usual methods of observation. High school and up (2010, Harvard University). See also Imagine : Dark Matter (2010, NASA).
Exploring Space : The Quest for Life - Essays, games, quizzes, timelines, and other resources for examining 'the search for life - from its origins on Earth, to possibilities in space.' You can even try out life as an astronaut on a simulated mission. (2005, KCTS Television / PBS; site includes advertisements)
Field Guide to the Universe - Descriptions (with images) of the sun and planets in our solar system, plus info on spacecraft and brief biographies of astronomers from ancient times through the present. Also includes a 'Design a Space Station' interactive. Middle school and up. (2010, Children's Museum of Indianapolis)
History of Cosmology - From the ancient Greeks to the present, this site presents 'the story of the colorful individuals, startling ideas and ingenious tools that brought us knowledge of the vast and strange universe we inhabit. Written by leading historians of astronomy, richly illustrated.' (American Institute of Physics)
Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute - A great collection of online resources for learning about astronomy, including Interactive Explorations of stars, galaxies, comets, black holes, and more, a Skywatch Podcast on the latest news in astronomy, a monthly stargazing show, astronomy trivia quiz, and more. High school and up.
Mars Rover Curiosity Discovery Guide - 'Fun facts and activities to learn about Mars and all the innovations that make the Mars Science Laboratory mission and its Curiosity rover one of NASA's most exciting space missions.' Middle school and up (NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Mars Science Laboratory provides additional background info, mission images, and the latest news about 'Curiosity' (NASA). See also Return to Mars , an archive of 2012 webcasts that followed Curiosity's landing and initial exploration of the red planet, with stunning images and expert commentary by staff and visiting scientists (Exploratorium).
Mercury MESSENGER - Information about MESSENGER, the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury. Includes FAQs, images, an interactive mission timeline, mission design, spacecraft, instruments, mission team, and Student Activities & Resources . (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory)
Meteors and Meteorites - Explains meteors, meteor showers, meteorites, and related topics; for middle school and up (NASA). See also What causes a falling star? for elementary school and up (NASA) and Windows to the Universe : Meteors for elementary school and up (2008, National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements).
NASA's Space Place - Games, animations, projects, and fun facts about Earth, space and technology, for elementary school kids. NASA for Students provides homework help and other resources in separate sections for elementary, middle, high school and college students. Also offers extensive resources for educators.
Observing the Sun - This site explains the different ways you can safely observe the Sun, sunspots, or solar eclipses. (2008, Stanford University)
Origins of the Universe (Nova) - Explores the question of how the universe began, how life first began on earth and whether it exists elsewhere in the galaxy, with interviews, interactives, links and other resources. Middle school and up (2004, WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements). Origins (Exploratorium) , a collection of websites which explore the origins of matter, the universe, earth, and life itself, using webcasts, interactive elements, video clips, articles, and images 'to illuminate the human endeavor behind scientific research today... and the intellect & energy behind the great discoveries that fuel our understanding of the universe.' Middle school and up. (2000 - 2011, Exploratorium Museum).
Pluto Demoted! - In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) voted on their first 'official' definition of a planet. Based on this new definition, Pluto is no longer a planet. This page explains the decision (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements). See also What Makes a Planet? for further discussion (Cornell).
Skylab - Facts and history of the Skylab project, missions 1 through 4. (2003, NASA)
Skywatching (EarthSky Tonight) [UPDATED LINK!] - Star charts and other night sky information for each day, plus skywatching tips and links (Earth and Sky radio series; site includes advertisements). Tonight's Sky offers great monthly flash videos to help you learn to recognize constellations and other objects in the night sky (Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute). Another excellent radio series available online is Stardate , which includes a beginner's guide to the night sky, constellation guide, weekly stargazing tips, and lots more; use the lefthand menu to navigate (University of Texas). NASA's Space Place offers links to a variety of activities for young skywatchers. More advanced students may be interested in Current Sky Information (Harvard University), and Space Weather (by Dr. Tony Phillips, NASA; site includes advertisements).
Solar Sail - News on the LightSail project, an effort to demonstrate that sunlight can propel a spacecraft in Earth orbit (Planetary Society ). See also Solar Sail Demonstration (The Sunjammer Project) (NASA).
Solar System - Find out about the Sun, planets, comets, and asteroids. Lots of great images. Choose Beginner, Intermediate, or Advanced version at the top of each page. (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements)
South Pole Telescope (Ice Stories) - Follows a group of scientists, technicians, and engineers building the largest telescope ever deployed at the South Pole. The telescope will give astronomers a powerful new tool to explore dark energy, the mysterious force that may be causing the universe to accelerate. (2006 - 2011, Exploratorium Museum). See also South Pole Telescope (University of Chicago).
Space Missions - The history of space exploration, with information on both manned and unmanned missions, and lots of images. Choose Beginner, Intermediate, or Advanced version at the top of each page (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements). See also NASA's home page which includes sections for kids, students and educators.
Space Photos - Need pictures for your report? This site has lots of photos of astronauts, spacecraft, planets, and other space-related subjects. (NASA)
Space Station - Watch the videos to see how the crew eats, sleeps and exercises on the International Space Station. You can also learn about how the space station works, and take a 360º online tour (2007). For the latest news on the Station, see International Space Station. (NASA)
Space Weather Center - Articles and interactives on our dynamic sun and space weather. Topics include plasmas, the solar cycle, solar wind, magnetic shields, auroras, and more. For elementary and middle school. (Space Science Institute)
StarChild - Another good basic astronomy site for kids, covering the solar system, universe, and space travel, plus a glossary of terms. Two separate section, Level 1 for elementary school students, Level 2 for middle school and up. Imagine the Universe is for students age 14 and up; use the menu under the title to choose 'Ask an Astrophysicist', Dictionary, or Resources. (NASA)
Stellarium - 'Stellarium is a free open source planetarium for your computer. It shows a realistic sky in 3D, just like what you see with the naked eye, binoculars or a telescope.' (Created by Fabien Chéreau et al.)
Sunspots - Explores the nature of sunspots and the fascinating history of our efforts to understand them. Includes interviews, historic & modern images, movies, and a sunspot research activity (2001, University of California).
Tenth Planet Discovered! - In 2005, astronomers found a new planet in the outer reaches of our solar system. This article, with accompanying audio and links to more information, tells the story (NASA). UPDATE: Because of the IAU's new definition of 'planet', decided in August 2006, this 'tenth planet', now known as Eris, is currently classified as a dwarf planet (2009, National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements). For more about the discovery of the 10th planet, and planet theory, see NOVA's Science Now program (2006, WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements). See also Pluto Demoted, above.
Windows to the Universe - Great information on stars, galaxies, the cosmos, the history of astronomy, white dwarfs, black holes, and other 'Strange Stuff in Space'. Choose Beginner, Intermediate, or Advanced version at the top of each page. (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements)
Women in Space - Timeline describing the history of women in space from 1960 to 2005. Middle school and up (2005, NPR; site includes advertisements). See also NASA History : Women in Space and Women @ NASA : Profiles (2012, NASA).
Ask a Biologist - 'For students who ever had a question about biology or what it's like to work in the biology field, Ask a Biologist lets them ask the experts - biologists themselves. Designed for students in grades preK-12, this website also features interactive and educational activities for students, teachers and parents.' Includes an audio podcast. (Arizona State University)
Atlas of the Human Body [UPDATED LINK!] - A basic illustrated anatomy of the human body (American Medical Association). Body Basics explains how each body system, part, and process works, and what happens when things go wrong; for teens. How the Body Works is a similar page for younger kids (Nemours Foundation Center for Children's Health Media). Get BodySmart offers interactive animations that teach you about human anatomy and physiology; for college or advanced high school students (McGraw-Hill Higher Education; site includes advertisements). For more on health, see the South Plainfield Public Library's HEALTH & FITNESS page.
Bacteria [UPDATED LINK!] - The Virtual Museum of Bacteria 'brings together many links on bacteria, bacteriology, and related topics available on the web. It also provides crystal-clear information about many aspects of bacteria.' Use the left-hand menu to choose a topic. (2009, by Trudy Wassenaar / Foundation of Bacteriology and the Society for Applied Microbiology).
Biochemistry Animations - A collection of interactive animations designed to help students learn about biochemical processes such as cell structure, cloning, DNA replication, nucleotides, photosynthesis, and many more. Also includes concept reviews, quizzes, tutorials, and links. College level (2002, John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc.). See also Chemistry of Life [UPDATED LINK!] for problem sets and tutorials in biochemistry (1996 - 2003, University of Arizona).
Biology 4 Kids - Illustrated lessons in basic biology, covering cells, microorganisms, plants, invertebrates, vertebrates, animal systems, and scientific method. (1997 - 2011, Andrew Rader Studios; site includes advertisements)
BioInteractive - A collection of free learning resources for science teachers and students, including articles, interviews, animations, videos, and interactives; high school and up (Howard Hughes Medical Institute).
Biology Learning Resources- Links to selected online instructional materials on a wide variety of subjects in Biology, including Bioethics, Genetics, Evolution, Ecology / Environment, Neuroscience, and more. Grade level varies. (National Association of Biology Teachers; site includes advertisements)
Biology of Plants - Step-by-step explanations of how plants grow, make food, reproduce, and adapt to the world around them. Well illustrated; middle school and up. (2006, Missouri Botanical Garden)
Biology / Paleontology Glossary - Brief definitions of terms used in Phylogenetics, Geology, Biochemistry, Cell biology, Ecology, Life history, Zoology, Botany, and Paleogeography; many definitions include links to additional information. You can browse the glossary alphabetically or by subject. High school and up. (1995 - 2009, University of California Museum of Paleontology)
BioScience Ed Net - Extensive directory of online learning resources in the biological sciences, from pre-school to postgraduate levels. You can search the resources by keyword and audience (grade level), or browse by audience, by subject (each broad subject is broken down into narrower topics), or by resource type (book, journal article, image, video, etc.). Each resource listing includes a description and specificies the resource type and audience. For students and teachers (American Association for the Advancement of Science).
BioScience Issues - A large collection of articles describing current bioscience issues such as biotechnology, biodiversity, environment, genomics, and evolution, and examining how they affect your life. Sidebars summarize key points for each article, and most articles includes links to related information; many also offer educator resources. Mostly for high school and up, though some links for middle school are included. (American Institute of Biological Sciences)
The Body Explained [UPDATED LINK!] - Ever wonder 'What Causes Goose Bumps?' 'What Causes Hiccups?' 'What Causes Blushing?' 'What Causes an Ice Cream Headache?' 'What is That Little Thing That Hangs Down in the Back of Your Throat?' or 'Why Do Onions Make You Cry?' These brief, entertaining online videos will give you the answers! For all ages. (2004 - 2011, Baylor College of Medicine)
Brain Maps - An interactive digital brain atlas & virtual microscope showing high-resolution scanned images of both primate and non-primate brains. Includes complete brain atlas datasets for Macaca mulatta, C. aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, and others. For college or advanced high school students. (2001 - 2012, University of California)
Cells Alive! - Interactives, animations, images and descriptions for cell biology, microbiology, immunology, & microscopy. For college or advanced high school students. (1994 - 2010, by biologist/photographer James A. Sullivan; site includes advertisements)
DNA from the Beginning - This online tutorial explains classical genetics using text, animation, image gallery, video interviews, problem, biographies, and links. High school and up (2002 - 2011, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory). Learn Genetics [UPDATED LINK!] offers helpful instructional animations on genetics (University of Utah). For additional resources, see GeneEd : Genetics, Education, Discovery ; high school and up (National Library of Medicine).
Encyclopedia of Earth - 'An electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.' Features articles, news, videos, images & other resources, contributed and reviewed by experts. Style is intended to be useful to students, educators, scholars, professionals, and the general public. High school and up. (National Council for Science and the Environment et al.; site includes advertisements). For more links on environmental topics, see South Plainfield Public Library's ECOLOGY, WILDLIFE, PLANTS & ANIMALS and WEATHER & DISASTERS pages.
Environmental Health - Links to homework resources and online activities that explain how the environment can affect human health. A few short videos are included. Appropriate grade level (K-12+) is indicated for each resource. Elementary and middle school students should also check out the Kids' Pages for experiments, activities, games, jokes, songs, quizzes, and more! (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)
Evidence : How We Know What We Know - This case study in human origins - exploring how scientific evidence shapes our current understanding of what makes us human, and how we got this way - is used as a starting point to examine the scientific process, revealing the ways in which ideas and information become knowledge and understanding (2009, Exploratorium Museum). For more on human evolution, see Human Origins, below. For more on evolution generally, see Evolution, below.
Evolution [UPDATED LINK!] - Explains Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and how it was developed; for middle school and high school students (British Broadcasting Corporation). NOVA's Evolution Project offers 'online lessons, videos, and a library of multimedia resources for use in coursework, special projects, and independent study' for high school students (2001, WGBH and Clear Blue Sky Productions / PBS;). Understanding Evolution is designed 'to help you understand what evolution is, how it works, how it factors into your life, how research in evolutionary biology is performed, and how ideas in this area have changed over time.' Includes teaching resources for K-12 (University of California Museum of Paleontology et al.). See also Darwin : The Man and the Theory ; high school and up (2005 - 2006, American Museum of Natural History). For online texts of Darwin's writings, see The Complete Works of Charles Darwin (University of Cambridge et al.). For more on human evolution, see Human Origins, below.
Eyes Have It [Archived site] - 'Eyes can be simple light-sensitive cells that don't see images, or complex organs that see light, shadow, color, shape, and depth.' On this site you can learn the fundamental facts about vision, eyes and eye anatomy. Includes related resources. High school (San Diego Natural History Museum). Listen offers short videos, lessons, games, and other activities about sound and hearing, and about how listening helps us navigate our world (Exploratorium Museum).
Gray's Anatomy - A searchable, chapter-by-chapter E-text of the classic work in anatomy; illustrated. High school and up. (Bartleby.com; site includes advertisements, pop-ups)
Health Science Education Resources - Free resources include booklets and websites on topics like cell biology, genetics, chemistry, pharmacology, computational biology and structural biology; Findings, a twice-yearly magazine showcasing vibrant and diverse scientists who do cutting-edge research; interactive games & puzzles; a scientific image gallery with downloadable photos, illustrations and videos; a monthly electronic newsletter that highlights recent scientific advances; and a series of articles about the science of health. Mostly for high school and up (National Institute of General Medical Sciences). NIH Educational Resources is a selection of links to high quality health science learning resources, browsable by subject, grade level (elementary, middle, or high school), or format (National Institutes of Health Office of Science Education).
Human Genome Project [UPDATED LINK!] - A collection of resources to help students learn more about the Human Genome Project (HGP) and related issues (2010 - 2012, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science). See also Genomics Definitions and Terms (2007, University of Kentucky). High school and up.
Human Origins - Text and images exploring the history and future of human evolution, and the question of what makes us human. Also includes links to related resources; for high school and advanced middle school students (American Museum of Natural History). The Leakey Foundation website has a Timeline of key discoveries related to human origins from 1840 to the present. Human Beginnings describes the evolution of humans, with articles about cavemen, neanderthals, and the development of human intelligence; includes an interactive quiz. Middle school and up (British Broadcasting Corporation). What Does It Mean To Be Human? is 'dedicated to bringing you the excitement, latest findings, and profound implications of the scientific exploration of human origins.' High school and up (2010 - 2011, Smithsonian Institution). The Human Spark is a three-part video series exploring the questions: 'What is the nature of human uniqueness? Where did the Human Spark ignite, and when? And perhaps most tantalizingly, why?' You can watch video clips on specific topics (Neuroscience, Primates, Human Evolution, and Child Development), or view the entire series online (WNET / PBS; site includes advertisements). Becoming Human offers an interactive multimedia documentary that tells the story of our origins, plus related classroom materials, games & activities (2008, Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University). Surviving : the Body of Evidence is a multimedia presentation explores the past and possible future of human evolution, our place in the natural world, and more. High school and up (2008, Penn Museum).
Hyper Heart - An interactive animation/movie demonstrating the processes of a normal cardiac cycle. Also includes an electrocardiogram and heart sounds graph. 'Tutorials are provided for each phase of the cycle and interactive functions can all be utilized within the animation itself. For detailed instructions of the controls please use the HELP button (question mark).' High school and up (Dr. Don Blumenthal et al., University of Utah). See also The Human Heart; middle school and up (Franklin Institute; site includes advertisements).
Life Sciences CyberBridge - Reviews biology and chemistry concepts that are fundamental to success in introductory college Life Sciences courses. CyberBridge is divided into several topic areas - math in biology, bonding, DNA, Mendel's laws, population genetics, and mitosis & meiosis - each with a tutorial and an assessment quiz. For college freshmen or advanced high school students. (Harvard University)
Microbe World - Discover the wonderful world of fungi, bacteria, viruses, molds and other slimy things - what they are, where they live, and how we use them. You can also perform experiments, investigate microbes in the news, and learn about careers in microbiology. Includes audio and video podcasts; formerly Stalking the Mysterious Microbe. For middle school and up (2009, American Society for Microbiology). Another great microbe site is Microbe Zoo, featuring DirtLand, Animal Pavilion, Snack Bar, Space Adventure, and Water World (2002, Michigan State University). Blackwell Publishing offers a Glossary of Terms [Link opens a PDF document]; for college or advanced high school students. Microbial Life provides a variety of educational and supporting materials for students and teachers, K-12 (2008, Carleton College).
Microscope Imaging Station - A range of high-resolution images and movies showing the diversity of what can be seen with light microscopes, plus feature articles and suggested learning activities. (Exploratorium Museum).
Mind Lab - 'How is our consciousness connected to the world? Explore the unconscious functions of the brain with visual illusions and mysterious perceptual phenomena.' High school and up. NOTE: Site is slow to load and requires a high-speed internet connection to view. (2009, Japan Science and Technology Agency)
Neuroscience for Kids - 'The smell of a flower - the memory of a walk in the park - the pain of stepping on a nail. These experiences are made possible by the 3 pounds of tissue in our heads...the brain!' Q & A, experiments, activities, games, and links to help you learn about the brain, spinal cord, neurons and the senses. High school (1996 - 2010; by Eric H. Chudler, University of Washington). Lobe-Oratorium is an interactive game to help you understand how different parts of the brain work; a PDF transcript is also available; middle school and up (2012, National Institutes of Health). See also Brain : The Inside Story ; middle school and up (2011, American Museum of Natural History et al.) and The Learning Brain; for grades 3 - 12 (Baylor College of Medicine).
Phylogeny of Life - Online exhibits exploring the relationships which connect all organisms, past and present. See also Evolutionary Trees for related information. High school and up. (2009, University of California Museum of Paleontology)
The Scientist - Feature articles, news, and opinion on a wide range of topics in cell & molecular biology, genetics, and other life-science fields. 'Through innovative print articles, online stories, and multimedia features, the magazine explores the latest scientific discoveries, trends in research, innovative techniques, new technology, business, and careers... Written by prominent scientists and professional journalists, articles in The Scientist are concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining.' High school and up. (Now published by LabX Media Group; site includes advertisements)
Scitable - A free library of articles, currently concentrating on genetics and cell biology, including 'evolution, gene expression, and the rich complexity of cellular processes shared by living organisms. Scitable also offers resources for the budding scientist, with advice about effective science communication and career paths.' High school and up. (Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited)
Secrets of the Sequence - Fifty of the best videos from the public television series, Secrets of the Sequence. Each 8- to 10-minute video is focused on a particular biology topic such as anatomy, bacteria, bioethics, biotechnology, botany, life sciences careers, DNA, evolution, forensics, genetics, human health, and insects. All the videos have an accompanying classroom-tested lesson which includes background information, curriculum standards, discussion questions & answers, teacher notes, and a classroom activity. Click on a topic to see the list of videos, click on a video title for a description and link to downloadable lesson. High school. (Virginia Commonwealth University et al.)
Virtual Cell Website - Allows you to get a close-up view of several organelles in 3-D. Choose an organelle within the cell and manipulate it by zooming in, rotating the image, and dissecting several organelles to view their contents. If you have trouble, see instructions (1998 - 2004; created by high school & university faculty and students).
Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - 'This online textbook is designed to provide a thorough, in-depth treatment of this topic at the first-year college or advanced-HS levels, with a special focus on the underlying concepts.' Covers quanta; light, particles & waves; Bohr atom; quantum atom; atomic electron configurations; and periodic properties of the elements (2005; by Stephen Lower, a retired professor of chemistry at Simon Fraser University). See also Periodic Table, below.
Chem 1 Virtual Textbook - An online general chemistry textbook designed for first-year college students (By Stephen Lower, a retired professor of chemistry at Simon Fraser University). See also ChemPRIME (Ed Vitz, Professor of Chemistry at Kutztown University & John W. Moore, Professor of Chemistry at University of Wisconsin) and Concept Development Studies in Chemistry (John S. Hutchinson, Professor of Chemistry at Rice University).
Chem Matters [UPDATED LINK!] - An online magazine featuring articles and videos that teach you about the real-world applications of scientific concepts you learn in the classroom. For high school students; includes a teacher's guide and related material. (American Chemical Society)
Chemistry in History - Biographies of more than 100 chemists from the 17th century to the present, with explorations of related themes such as Atomic & Nuclear Structure, Petrochemistry & Synthetic Polymers, Pharmaceuticals, Public & Environmental Health, Microelectronics & Nanotechnology, Chemical Engineering and more, plus hands-on classroom activities to help bring chemistry to life. High school and up. (Chemical Heritage Foundation)
Chemistry Now - An online video series that explains the chemistry of common objects such as cheeseburgers and chocolate or soap and plastics. The series also looks at the lives and work of scientists on the frontiers of the 21st century. (National Science Foundation, NBC Learn, and the National Science Teachers Association)
Chemistry Review - A review of basic concepts and principles of chemistry, including water, physical change in solids, physical change in liquids, dissolving, chemical change, states of matter, and density. Created for K-8 teachers, but useful for anyone who needs a review of basic chemistry. (American Chemical Society)
Chemistry Tutorials - This online tutorial contains reviews of a dozen introductory topics, plus practice problems and practice quizzes; use the lefthand menu to navigate. For college or advanced high school students. (Washington University)
Chem4Kids - This chemistry site explains matter, atoms, elements, reactions, biochemistry, and more. Middle school and up. (1997 - 2013, Andrew Rader Studios; site includes advertisements)
Color - Why is the sky blue? Why is fire yellow? All the colors in the universe originate from fifteen fundamental physical causes, summarized in this online exhibit. High school and up. (2008, Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement, non-profit organization)
Distillations Podcast - 'An award-winning science podcast that brings you extracts from the past, present, and future of chemistry.' Middle school and up (Chemical Heritage Foundation). See also Bytesize Science Podcast [UPDATED LINK!] ; high school and up (American Chemical Society).
General Chemistry Online - This college-level chemistry site includes a searchable database of over 800 common compound names, formulas, structures, and properties; notes and guides for first semester general chemistry; an interactive toolbox; tutorials; quizzes; and a searchable, annotated database of over 500 general chemistry Web resources. NOTE: some of the hyperlinks on the Companion Notes are non-functional, but you can find the linked material by scrolling down the page. (1997 - 2010; by Fred Senese, Frostburg State University)
Learn Chemistry [UPDATED LINK!] - Thousands of chemistry learning resources for students and teachers. You can narrow the selection by resource type (videos, handouts, worksheets, games, articles, websites etc.), age group (from 7 years through graduate level), and by subject or context. (Royal Society of Chemistry, UK)
Middle School Chemistry - 'What happens when solids, liquids, and gases are heated and cooled? Why is one substance more or less dense than another? What causes certain substances to dissolve in water? What happens when a chemical reaction takes place? These questions and many more are explored in Middle School Chemistry, a resource of guided, inquiry-based lesson plans that covers basic chemistry concepts along with the process of scientific investigation.' Materials on this site are mostly for teachers. Related sites for students include Explore Chemistry / Science for Kids [UPDATED LINK!] , K-8; and Student Programs and Resources [UPDATED LINK!] , all ages. (American Chemical Society)
Online Chemistry Games - Free interactive games and quizzes to help build your knowledge of the elements and the periodic table. Middle school and up. (2010, Sheppard Software; site includes advertisements)
Periodic Table - These interactive lessons take you through the periodic table piece by piece to help you understand how it works, and how and why elements interact to make the world you see around you. High school and up. (Annenberg Media)
Periodic Table of the Elements - Click on any element for a picture, basic facts, and detailed description; some elements include multimedia. Middle school and up (Royal Society of Chemistry, UK). The The Photographic Periodic Table includes photos and descriptions (2010; by Popular Science columnist Theodore Gray et al.; site includes advertisements). Click on any element in the Interactive Periodic Table [UPDATED LINK!] for a pop-up window with the basic data for that element; no pictures or descriptions. Click on 'Groups' to highlight groups such as alkali metals, halogens, noble gases, etc. Use the tabs to view electron configurations and plot data; high school and up (American Chemical Society). It's Elemental offers descriptions & data only, no pictures (site maintained by Steve Gagnon, Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility). Web Elements is another periodic table site providing both basic and detailed information (history, physical and nuclear data, uses, structure, and more) and a picture for each element, plus audio pronunciation (British). High school/advanced students (1993 - 2010; by Dr. Mark J. Winter, University of Sheffield, England; lots of advertisements).
Dynamic Earth - 'Explore the dynamic forces that formed — and are continually re-forming — the earth and our solar system.' Divided into four sections: Gems & Minerals, Plate Tectonics & Volcanoes, Rocks & Mining, and The Solar System. Includes both a multimedia version and a printable version. (2005, Smithsonian Institution)
Dynamic Earth Interactive - With these interactive lessons you can delve into the earth's interior, learn about its tectonic plates and their movements, and discover how mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes are formed. Middle school and up. (2007, Annenberg Media)
Earth - Information about the earth's surface, atmosphere, ecosystems, and more, with images. Choose Beginner, Intermediate, or Advanced version at the top of each page. (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements)
Earth Like a Puzzle [UPDATED LINK!] - Explains the process of plate tectonics - how the continents and oceans move across the surface of the earth. Middle school and up (2000 - 2001, Scripps Institution of Oceanography). For world maps showing how the continents looked during each geological time period - and how they might look in the future - see Earth History (2000 - 2010; by Christopher R. Scotese, University of Texas).
Earth Revealed - A video instructional series on geology. High school and up; free registration required. (1992, Annenberg Media)
Earth Science World Image Bank - Thousands of images searchable by categories, continents, countries, or keywords. (American Geosciences Institute)
Evolving Planet [Archived site] - A virtual 'tour through time', describing the various eras and periods in the geologic time scale, and exploring when life began, when mammals first appeared, and when humans entered the scene. Includes a basic overview of each period, plus image galleries, 'evolutionary essentials', video interviews with scientists, multimedia presentations, and more. Middle school and up. (2007, Field Museum of Chicago)
Exploring Earth - A chapter-by-chapter companion to Earth Science (a high school textbook authored by Spaulding & Namowitz), featuring animations and interactive tools, plus links and other resources. Click on 'Select a Chapter' to get started. (2003, TERC, Inc. / National Science Foundation / Houghton Mifflin Company)
Energy Resources (petroleum, coal, etc.) - See Energy Facts for Kids and related links, below.
Geologic Time - Basic earth science text covering geologic time, the relative time scale, the radiometric time scale, major divisions of geologic time, index fossils, and the age of the earth. Illustrated; high school and up (1997, U.S. Geological Survey). See also Geological Time (British Geological Survey) and Tour of Geologic Time (2009, University of California Museum of Paleontology).
Geology - An introduction to geology, covering the different types of rocks and minerals and the various geologic eras, with images. Choose Beginner, Intermediate, or Advanced version at the top of each page. (National Earth Science Teachers Association; lots of advertisements)
Geology Images - Photos of different types of rock and other geologic formations, with brief descriptions. (2000; by Allen Glazner, University of North Carolina)
Geosciences Math - Instructional modules on math topics that are important in introductory geoscience courses. Each topic includes a page for the instructor, quantitative information for the students, a set of practice problems and quiz. For college or advanced high school students. (2007 - 2010, Carleton College)
Mineral Matters [Archived site] - Learn how to identify minerals, grow your own crystals, or build a collection. Also includes FAQ, puzzles and games. For high school or advanced middle school students (2011, San Diego Natural History Museum). Mineralogy for Kids explores the world of mineralogy, including crystals, mineral groups, mineral properties, and minerals in your house. For high school or advanced middle school students (Mineralogical Society of America). GeoGallery (2009, Smithsonian Institution) offers photos and brief descriptions of gems, minerals, rocks, volcanoes, and meteorites. The Mineral and Gemstone Gallery gives property data and large, clear photographs for more than a hundred minerals and gemstones. Text is for high school and up; a list of sources is provided on the Bibliography page (1996 - 2007; by Ron Gibbs).
Rock Cycle - An interactive Web site where you can learn how rocks can be identified, how they are formed, and how they change over time. Middle school and up (2007, Annenberg Media). See also Rock Cycle Animations, a small collection of simple flash animations illustrating metamorphic rock formation, clastic sedimentary rocks formation, igneous rock formation, and igneous rocks classification (Carleton College; compiled by Mark Francek at Central Michigan University).
Schoolyard Geology - 'Wish you could take more field trips? You can! Your own schoolyard is filled with great geologic features! This website is filled with activities and examples of what to look for to turn your schoolyard into a rich geologic experience.' Grades K-12, but mostly for elementary and middle school students. The USGS Corecast includes audio and video podcasts on a wide variety of earth science topics such as wildlife, climate, natural resources, floods & earthquakes, water pollution, and more. (2011, U.S. Geological Survey)
Virtual Courseware for Earth & Environmental Sciences - Interactive tutorials, animations, and photographs teach students about earthquakes, global warming, carbon dating, and other earth science topics. High school and up. (1996 - 2007, California State University)
Accounting Tutorial - Online review of essential concepts in accounting, plus Self-Test Quizzes and Review Problems. (2009; by Gerald F. Manahan Jr., San Antonio College)
Algebra in Simplest Terms - A 1991 video instructional series which 'explains how algebra is used for solving real-world problems and clearly explains concepts that may baffle many students. Graphic illustrations and on-location examples help students connect mathematics to daily life.' High school & college level. Free registration required. This and other online math video series (many free) for students and teachers are by Annenberg Media. For tutorials covering all College Algebra concepts as well as prerequisites to College Algebra, see Virtual Math Lab : Algebra (2001 - 2008; by Kim Seward, West Texas A&M University).
Bitesize Maths (KS3) - This British educational site offers basic lessons on numbers, algebra, data, measurement, shape and space. [Click on a topic, then click 'REVISE' for lessons.] Also includes activities and quizzes; for middle school students. See Bitesize Maths (KS2) for elementary school students. (British Broadcasting Corporation)
Calculus on the Web - A set of online interactive textbooks teaching pre-calculus, calculus, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and number theory (by Gerardo Mendoza and Dan Reich, Temple University). For selected links to additional calculus help, see the Calculus Page (1998 - 2011, Joel Hass et al., University of California).
Cyberchase Games - Math games for kids aged 8 - 11. (2010, PBS)
Figure This! Math Challenge - Cartoon characters present interesting mathematical challenges that students can do at home with their families. Each challenge includes complete solutions, and related support materials and resources for further exploration. Middle-school. (1999 - 2004, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)
Fractals - Explains the special properties of geometric figures called fractals, with activities and links to additional resources. For elementary / middle school students and up. (1996 - 2007; by Cynthia Lanius, Rice University)
Fun Mathematics Lessons - Fun lessons in counting, fractions, ratios, graphs, beginning algebra & geometry, and more; mostly for elementary / middle school students. (1998 - 2008; by Cynthia Lanius, Rice University)
Geometry : 3D Shapes - A collection of fun interactive lessons to help you learn about some of the many three-dimensional geometric shapes commonly found in the world around us. Middle school and up, with some materials for teachers, too. (2007, Annenberg Media)
History of Math - Describes the history of mathematics in various cultures (ancient Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Arabic, Chinese, etc.) as well as the history of different branches of mathematics; arranged by topic. Also includes a glossary, math chronology, biographies of mathematicians from 1680 BC to the present (including female mathematicians), and biographical timeline. High school and up (2000 - 2011, University of St Andrews, Scotland). See also Biographies of Women Mathematicians (1995 - 2011, Agnes Scott College). Ancient History Math Mystery [Link opens a PDF] looks at ancient number systems, including Egyptian, Babylonian, Roman, Chinese and Maya numerals. Other activities cover circumference, radius, area and perimeter; converting percents, decimals and fractions, and problem solving. Middle school and up (Penn Museum).
Math Cats - Fun and colorful games, crafts, art, projects, and stories to help kids learn arithmetic and math. Mostly for elementary school students; scroll down through the site map to see the recommended age levels for each activity. (2000 - 2011; by Wendy A. Petti)
Math Glossary - Brief definitions of math terms, arranged A to Z. High school and up. (2000, University of St Andrews, Scotland)
Math in Daily Life - Do you find math abstract and boring? This site shows you the importance of numbers in games of chance, money management, cooking, decorating, and other everyday activities. High school and up (Annenberg / CPB). Math and Cultural Designs examines cultural designs such as cornrow hairstyles, Native American crafts, & break dancing, which are based on mathematical principles. It provides tutorials and software to help you learn mathematics by simulating the original artifacts and developing your own creations. Middle school and up (2003 - 2010, Ron Eglash, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute). Get the Math 'is about algebra in the real world. See how professionals use math in music, fashion, video games, restaurants, basketball, and special effects. Then take on interactive challenges related to those careers.' (THIRTEEN in association with WNET)
Math Lessons - Online interactive lessons aimed at improving the mathematics literacy of students in the social & behavioral sciences and humanities, enabling them to develop their critical thinking & quantitative skills and become better citizens. Topics covered include Venn diagrams, voting, fair division, area & integration, serial music, understanding graphs, and history of math. High school and up. (2003; Valipuram Manoranjan et al., Washington State University)
Math Links - Hundreds of great math-related sites arranged by topics: number & operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis / probability. Also offers more than 100 interactive activities , and hundreds of math lesson plans for teachers, grades pre-K through 12; arranged by grade level (2000 - 2011, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). More math lesson plans (with interactive lessons), arranged by grade level, are available at InterActivate covering number & operations, algebra, geometry, probability, statistics, modeling, and more (1994 - 2011, Shodor Education Foundation; non-profit organization, site includes advertisements).
Math Readiness - Interactive exercises to improve your skills in mental arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, exponential & logarithmic functions, and other math topics most needed by college-bound high school students. For each topic, a green dot is for easy, yellow dot for medium, and red for difficult exercises (2002, University of Saskatchewan).
Math Textbooks Online - Links to dozens of free online math textbooks. College level. (2013; by George Cain, Georgia Institute of Technology)
Scientific Calculator - Performs quick online conversions for Mass, Speed, Time, Power, Volume, Area, Length, Energy, Temp, Force, and Pressure (Aspen Labs, publisher of EEWeb Pulse Magazine). Uniteasy does conversions for angle, area, density, energy, electricity, light, magnetism, radiation, torque, viscosity, and much more; high school and up (author unknown). The Drexel University Math Forum's Internet Mathematics Library offers additional selected links to conversion tools and other sites related to measurment. How Much Is It? is a simple length, weight, and volume converter for younger kids (Math Cats).
Statistics - 'Against All Odds,' a video instructional series. 'With an emphasis on 'doing' statistics, this series goes on location to help uncover statistical solutions to the puzzles of everyday life.' High school & college level. Free registration required (1989, Annenberg Media).
Success in Math - 'Tips on how to study mathematics, how to approach problem-solving, how to study for and take tests, and when and how to get help.' There is also a printable version. Advice is aimed at undergraduates, but should be helpful for high school students too. (1993, Saint Louis University)
Astronomy, Planets, and Space Flight
Aeronautics - Online tutorial explaining the basic principles, tools, and methods for the study of flight. High school and up. (2012 - 2012, NASA)
Amusement Park Physics - 'How do physics laws affect amusement park ride design? In this exhibit, you'll have a chance to find out by designing your own roller coaster.' Also covers bumper cars, carousels, free fall, and pendulum; includes a physics glossary. Middle school and up. (Annenberg / CPB)
Atoms Family - This fun interactive site offers activities to help you understand different forms of energy, including light, wave, particle, kinetic and potential energy. Middle school and high school. (1997, Miami Museum of Science)
Calculators - See Scientific Calculator and related links, above.
Color - Why is the sky blue? Why is fire yellow? All the colors in the universe originate from fifteen fundamental physical causes, summarized in this online exhibit. High school and up. (2008, Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement, non-profit organization)
Einstein Light - These multimedia modules present the basic concepts of relativity, plus related links for more complete explanations, with or without mathematics (2005 - 2010, University of New South Wales, Australia). At Einstein's Big Idea you can listen to audio clips of top physicists describing Einstein's equation to non-physicists. (2005, WGBH / PBS NOVA; site includes advertisements). High school and up.
Energy Facts for Kids - Explains the different sources and uses of renewable and nonrenewable energy; also offers an energy quiz, and biographies of historic pioneers in energy from Isaac Newton to G. E. Alcorn. Middle and high school students (US Department of Energy). Watt's Up? The Lowdown on Energy examines the availability, costs, technologies, advantages & disadvantages of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric, geothermal, nuclear, solar, wind and biofuels; for middle and high school students (American Geosciences Institute). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides educational resources about renewable energy & energy efficiency technologies, including hands-on projects and curriculum suggestions for elementary school, middle school, and high school students (US Department of Energy). Definitions of energy terminology are available in the Glossary of Energy Technology; for middle and high school students (2001 - 2004, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). The WhyFiles offers an examination of the Nuclear Waste issue (2008, University of Wisconsin). From the Ground Up: The World of Oil explains the geology of oil exploration, how oil is formed, and the history and uses of oil; middle school and high school (2009, Paleontological Research Institution). Extreme Oil (2004, WNET / PBS; site includes advertisements) examines the technology of oil extraction as well as the processing and transport of petroleum; also delves into the political and environmental aspects of oil; high school and up. Discovery & Innovation offers articles which describe new developments and discoveries in energy technology and related fields; high school and up (U.S. Department of Energy).
Explore Physics - Type in a keyword such as 'freefall' or 'relativity' and enter your age and/or knowledge level to find links to recommended web pages on that topic; for elementary school through graduate level. See also Discover Physics . (Institute of Physics, UK)
HyperPhysics - This easy-to-navigate site explains concepts in physics in small segments, with illustrations, charts, and links to related concepts; the sidebar on the right is an alphabetical index (Carl R. Nave, Physics & Astronomy Instructor at Georgia State University).
Little Shop of Physics - A collection of physics experiments for you to try. Some use common household items, some you can do with your computer. Grade level varies, middle school and up. (2007, Colorado State University)
Nano Technologies - Explains the basics of nanotechnology, techniques & uses of nanotechnology, and potential risks & ethical issues. Also includes an interactive 'nanojourney'. [NOTE : Text is in English, but many of the videos are in French.] (2007, Center of Scientific, Technical, & Industrial Culture of Grenoble et al.). For the latest developments on nanotechnology in specific applications, see Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, which includes a useful Introduction to Nanotechnology (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Pew Charitable Trusts). High school and up. For links to additional K-12 resources on nanotechnology, see Nano.gov.
Physical Sciences Resources - A large searchable directory of high-quality resources in general physics and its various branches, including Astronomy, Optics, Thermodynamics, Electricity & Magnetism, Oscillations & Waves, Quantum Physics, and more; for elementary school through graduate level. Part of Compadre Digital Library, a network of free online resource collections supporting faculty, students, and teachers in Physics and Astronomy Education at all levels. Includes student activities, tutorials, lesson plans, career info, and more. Use the advanced search function to search by topic, resource type, target grade level, and/or target role. (American Association of Physics Teachers)
Physics 4 Kids - Illustrated lessons in basic physics, covering motion, heat & thermodynamics, electricity & magnetism, light, and other topics. (1997 - 2012, Andrew Rader Studios; site includes advertisements)
Physics Simulations - A collection of interactive simulations demonstrating various concepts in physics, including thermodynamics, mechanics, waves, electricity & magnetism, and light & optics (University of Colorado). A related site, Physics Flash Animations , illustrates dozens of concepts in physics. Includes animations on chaos, classical & quantum mechanics, electricity & magnetism, optics, relativity, waves, and more, sorted by category (2002 - 2004, David M. Harrison, University of Toronto). Multimedia PhysClips combine animations with audio/video explanations for added clarity (2007 - 2011; Joe Wolf, University of New South Wales, Australia). Interactive Physlets demonstrate concepts in physics through animation or interaction. High school and up.
Physics to Go - 'A collection of websites where you can learn physics on your own, through games, webcasts, and online exhibits and activities.' You can search for sites by keyword, or browse the collection by topic. Mouseover the 'details' icon by any link to see the appropriate grade level for that resource. (2004 - 2011, American Physical Society et al.)
String Theory - An online TV program explaining string theory, which proposes that 'the fundamental ingredients of nature are inconceivably tiny strings of energy.' You can watch the full three-hour program online (with a broadband connection), or view a short video excerpt. Includes related materials such as interviews, slide shows, interactive lessons, and more. High school and up. (1996-2003, WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements)
Dirtmeister Investigations - Fun hands-on science experiments on matter, sound, light, electricity, ecology and more; includes links and teachers' notes. Elementary and middle school students. (Scholastic Publishing)
Ecology Experiments - Step-by-step instructions for 12 ecology-related experiments, covering acid rain, biomes, water resources, and soil erosion. (Gale / Cengage Learning)
Exploratorium Hands-On Science - Instructions for ten or twelve fairly simple science projects. Scroll down to 'Table of Contents' for links to projects. Science Explorer describes dozens of simple, fun science experiments specially designed to be tried at home by parents and kids together. Exploratorium also offers many additional activities. See also Science Snacks; grade level varies. (Exploratorium Museum)
How to Smile - 'An online tool that allows educators to search, collect, and share high-quality, hands-on science and math activities... from the Lawrence Hall of Science, Exploratorium, Science Museum of Minnesota, Children's Museum of Houston, New York Hall of Science, and Association of Science - Technology Centers.' Descriptions for each activity list estimated cost of materials, time to perform, and target age group.
Iron Science Teacher - This fun take-off of the Iron Chef TV show gives science teachers five minutes to cook up a math or science demonstration using an everyday item such as a plastic bag, a milk carton, or a nail... After watching the Webcasts, cook up some activities of your own! (Exploratorium Museum)
Kids' Science Challenge - 'A free nationwide competition for 3rd to 6th graders to submit experiments and problems for scientists and engineers to solve. Play science games, watch videos, and enter to win awesome prizes and trips!' (Jim Metzner Productions, Inc. and National Science Foundation)
Mad Science Experiments - An assortment of simple science experiments you can do at home; some are edible! Appropriate age group is listed at the beginning of each experiment, as well as whether or not an adult should be present when it is performed. (1995 - 2006, by the MadSci Network, a collaborative academic project; site includes advertisements)
Newton's Apple - Science videos, simple experiments, and suggestions & resources for science projects. Middle school and high school. (PBS; site includes advertisements)
Online Science Activities - Step-by-step instructions for more than two dozen science experiments. Age level not specified, but most appear to be suitable for middle school or high school. (Museum of Science & Industry, Chicago)
Paper Plate Science - Inexpensive, hands-on, simple-to-complex science activities that use paper plates to supplement lessons in astronomy and other studies; age level varies. (2010, Chuck Bueter, DePaul University)
Planting Science - 'A learning and research resource, bringing together students, plant scientists, and teachers from across the nation. Students engage in hands-on plant investigations, working with peers and scientist mentors to build collaborations and to improve their understanding of science.' Students can get involved through a participating class project, or can use the Resources for Science Investigations independently. (Botanical Society of America et al.)
Science Buddies - To find a great science project idea that can hold your interest, use the Science Buddies' interactive 'Topic Selection Wizard'. Site also offers a 'Project Guide' how-to section with detailed guidance and examples, 'Ask an Expert' feature, and other science project resources. High school. (Kenneth Lafferty Hess Family Charitable Foundation)
Science Discovery Works - Science fair project resources for teachers and students in grades K-6. Created in 1999 - expect some broken links, though many are still good. (Houghton Mifflin Science)
Science Fair Central - A step-by-step handbook for creating a science project, plus a list of project ideas, links, recommended books, and tip sheets. Middle school and high school. (DiscoveryEducation.com; site includes advertisements)
Science Fair Project Resource Guide - A variety of useful links to help you with each step of doing a science project. (1995 - 2011, Internet Public Library)
STEM Programs and Projects - Links to 'a variety of international, national, regional, and local programs and projects that can help you explore career paths in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine. By participating in these projects, you can also develop a network of other students with similar interests and goals. They also provide opportunities for teamwork and many students earn recognition for their skills through awards and sometimes scholarships.' The site also offers links to Precollege STEM Summer Programs and Camps. Middle school and high school. (Sloan Career Cornerstone Center, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation)
Steps in a Science Fair Project - A brief summary of the steps you need to take to complete a science fair project; for middle school students. There is also a related video series, How to Do a Science Fair Project ; for best results, download the full video before viewing. (NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Try Science - 'Your gateway to experience the excitement of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide.' Elementary through high school. (New York Hall of Science et al.)