beakers and test tube Science & Math See also:

Facts on File: American Science Online


General Math & Science

See also:
Science Fairs, Projects & Experiments

Facts on File: American Science OnlineFacts on File: Science Online - Presents a broad range of scientific disciplines through extensive definitions, essays, diagrams, biographies, and experiments. If you're using Science Online on your home computer, you'll have to enter your name, library card barcode, and PIN to begin.

GreenFILEGREENFILE - A collection of scholarly, government and general-interest titles covering all aspects of human impact to the environment. Includes content on global warming, green building, pollution, sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, recycling, and more. For high school and up. If you're using GREENFILE on your home computer, you'll have to enter your name, library card barcode, and PIN to begin.

EBSCO SCIENCE REFERENCE CENTER is no longer available.

BioEd Online AUDIO VIDEO - 'Reliable, up-to-date information and educational tools in life, physical, and earth/space sciences appropriate for grades K-8.' Includes lesson plans & demos, nature news, audio podcasts, video, and other science education resources. (Baylor College of Medicine)

Bitesize Science (KS3) INTERACTIVE [Videos on this site do not play in the US.] [Click on a subject, then scroll through subtopics, to choose a Learner Guide] - This British educational site offers 'Learner Guides' on many subjects in biology, chemistry, and physics. Also includes activities and quizzes; for primary or secondary students (use tabs to choose grade levels). See also Bitesize Science (KS2) INTERACTIVE [Archived page] [Click on a topic, then click 'READ' for lessons] for elementary school students. (British Broadcasting Corporation)

Calculators - See Calculator and related links, below.

Children's University: Science INTERACTIVE - Interactive science lessons and quizzes for K-6, covering the body & medicines, energy & the environment, earth & beyond, teeth & eating, micro-organisms, the brain & senses, and exercise. (2012; University of Manchester, UK)

CurioCity VIDEO - 'Featuring insightful articles and videos that cover topics relevant to 13 to 17-year-olds - such as current events, health issues, technology, entertainment, sports and the environment - CurioCity is a wealth of interesting, accurate and credible information.' Includes STEM career info and career profiles. (from Let's Talk Science, a Canadian charitable 'organization).

EurekAlert - The latest news in scientific research, directly from research institutions, universities, government agencies, and corporations; arranged by subject; searchable archives. For college or advanced high school students; site includes advertisements (American Association for the Advancement of Science). 'features the latest discoveries by scientists at top research universities in the US, UK, Canada, and Australia... in an effort to share research news directly with the public' (non-profit site, supported by dozens of university partners). Science 360 VIDEO presents news and videos from around the world on the latest cutting-edge discoveries and big science stories of the day. A related site, National Science Foundation Discoveries highlights the latest discoveries and innovations that began with NSF support, including projects in cybersafety, green energy, extrasolar planets, robotics, ecosystems, and much more; high school and up (National Science Foundation, an independent federal agency). PBS NewsHour Extra VIDEO has science news videos and lesson plans for grades 7-12 (site includes advertisements; ads play at the start of videos). Inside Science VIDEO posts articles and videos on recent advances in science, engineering, mathematics, and related fields, produced for general audiences; search by keyword or browse by topic (American Institute of Physics; site includes advertisements). See also Nature and Science Podcasts, below.

Everyday Mysteries - Answers to many of life's most interesting questions, such as 'Did you ever wonder why a camel has a hump? If you can really tell the weather by listening to the chirp of a cricket? Or why our joints make popping sounds? Arranged by subject. Mostly for high school and up, though links may include good sites for younger students (2016, Library of Congress). You can also search for answers to your science questions (high school and up) on Scientific American's Ask the Experts and Ask the Brains pages (2016; site includes advertisements). Highlights Kids Science Questions provides answers for younger kids (ages 6 - 12).

Exploratorium Museum of Science, Art, and Human Perception AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Museum website offering engaging interactive and multimedia presentations, with a focus on investigating the science behind the ordinary subjects and experiences of people's lives, and the historical and social issues that surround them. Includes the Exploratorium Digital Library, a collection of online science materials covering a broad range of topics, organized by subject. Appropriate grade level, elementary through college, is specified for each resource.

Great Amateurs in Science - Brief stories of ten amateur scientists who made enormous contributions to science. (1996 - 2002, WGBH / PBS; site includes advertisements)

History of Science - A brief overview of the history of science from 4000 BC to the birth of modern science in the 17th through 20th centuries; middle school and up (2002, WETA / PBS; site includes advertisements). Museum of the History of Science offers a collection of more than 30 online exhibits on numerous aspects of the history of science; for high school and up (1995 - 2014, Oxford University, UK). Doing Biology presents 17 historical case studies which explore the nature of scientific experiments, the role of culture or personality in discovery, interactions among alternative theories, and more. High school and up. NOTE: Each case study is presented as a PDF, slow to download/open (By Joel Hagen, Douglas Allchin & Fred Singer. Doing Biology was originally published by Harper Collins, 1996).

Interactive Simulations INTERACTIVE [NOTE: JAVA may be required to view some sims.] - A large collection of animated simulations covering dozens of topics in physics, biology, chemistry, earth science, math, and cutting-edge research. On the left-hand menu, you can select a topic or view sims by Grade Level, elementary school through university (University of Colorado). Science Animations VIDEO INTERACTIVE provides links to dozens of movies & interactive tutorials, arranged by subject. Covers Anatomy & Physiology, Biology, Animals, Plants, Ecology, Microbiology, Astronomy, Geology, Physics, and general science collections; expect some broken links. Grade level varies (North Harris Montgomery Community College District, TX). Sumanas Animation Gallery NEW! VIDEO INTERACTIVE is a collection of animated tutorials on a variety of topics in astronomy, biology, microbiology, biotechnology, biopsychology / neuroscience, chemistry, and environmental science (Sumanas Inc. Multimedia Development Services®). Concord Coalition's STEM Resources INTERACTIVE features free, open source educational activities, models and software tools for elementary school through college; you can search by keyword or filter by subject, grade level and type (non-profit organization).

Inventors and Inventions - Selected links to the best websites on inventors and inventions. (South Plainfield Public Library)

K8 Science is now part of BioEd Online, above.

Nature: Science Videos VIDEO - Free online videos about recent research studies, featuring interviews with scientists behind the research, and analysis from Nature editors. Covers all the sciences. Nature also offers Nature News and Nature Podcasts AUDIO. High school and up. (Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited; site includes advertisements)

Nova Labs UPDATED LINK! - The NOVA Labs website allows you to actively participate in the scientific process. 'From predicting solar storms and designing renewable energy systems to tracking cloud movements and learning cybersecurity strategies, NOVA Labs participants can take part in real-world investigations by visualizing, analyzing, and sharing the same data that scientists use. Each Lab is unique, and focuses on a different area of active research. But all of them illustrate key concepts with engaging and informative videos and guide participants as they answer scientific questions or design solutions to current problems. Experts in the field are available as well to answer users' questions and to propose new routes of investigation.' (PBS)

Ology INTERACTIVE - Colorful lessons with lots of fun activities to help you learn about archaeology, astronomy, biodiversity, earth science, Einstein, genetics, marine biology, zoology and more. Middle school and up. Resources for Learning offers hundreds of additional activities, articles, and analyses on anthropology, astronomy, biology, earth science, and paleontology. For all ages (American Museum of Natural History).

PBS LearningMedia: Science NEW! AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - A large collection of webpages, audio, video, interactives, self-paced lessons and other learning resources in science. Searchable by subject, grade level, and resource type; for all ages. (PBS)

Planet Science INTERACTIVE - Science features, activities, experiments and online adventures, for age 11 and up. There are separate sections for kids under 11 and for parents & teachers. (2013, National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts, UK)

Pulse of the Planet AUDIO - A collection of daily two-minute sound recordings, tracking the rhythms of nature, culture and science worldwide and blending interviews and extraordinary natural sound. (Jim Metzner Productions, funded by National Science Foundation)

Rough Science: Discover More - Includes 'A Brief History of Science' (with timeline), plus articles on 'The Art of Science' and 'What Science is All About'. Also offers hands-on activities for Grades 5-8 and Grades 9-12. (2002, WETA / PBS; site includes advertisements)

Science and Math Games & Puzzles INTERACTIVE - A collection of games & puzzles including math games, hangman, crossword puzzles, word scrambles and more. Middle school and up. (Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility)

Science and Space Photos - Do you need pictures for your science paper? This site has a great collection of photos on earth, space, health & the human body, archaelogy, and the prehistoric world (National Geographic; site includes advertisements). You can find microscopic images at Science and Photography Through the Microscope (by Dennis Kunkel, Ph.D.) and Microscope Imaging Station (formerly Life through the Lens) (Exploratorium). Wellcome Images offers a wealth of images with themes ranging from medical and social history to contemporary healthcare and biomedical science; click on 'EXPLORE' to browse topics.

Science for Kids VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Links to facts, articles, games, videos and more, to help kids in grades K-5 learn about science. There is a similar site for grades 6-8. (

Science Net Links - Selected and annotated links to K-12 math and science lessons, tools, activities, and more; you can search by keywords, subject and grade level (American Association for the Advancement of Science). School Science INTERACTIVE [Separate sections for Elementary school (Primary), age 11-14, age 14-16, and age 16-19. Use the toolbar menu to choose a grade level.] offers links to a wide range of science resources (mostly British) for students. Also includes resources for teachers. (Association for Science Education, UK). For additional links to selected online learning resources in science, math and engineering, see MIT Blossoms: Resources NEW! (Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

Science Update Podcasts AUDIO - Daily 60-second audio reports on the latest discoveries in science, technology and medicine. Science Updates AUDIO are 60-second student-friendly radio programs presenting current science research, selected from the Science Update Podcasts. Science Podcasts AUDIO are weekly online audiocasts built around interesting stories in Science Magazine and its sister sites; high school and up (The above sites are from the American Association for the Advancement of Science; sites may include advertisements). For more audio science news, see BBC Science in Action AUDIO (British Broadcasting Corporation), NPR Science AUDIO (National Public Radio; site includes advertisements); high school and up. A Moment of Science AUDIO is a two-minute radio program that answers thousands of questions about the world we live; middle school and up (Indiana University et al.).

Scientific Method - Step-by-step instructions on how science experiments are done (NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Print out the Scientific Process Log [Archived page] to record each step of the scientific process used in a scientific investigation of your own (NASA). See also Understanding Science 101, below.

Sports 'n Science VIDEO - If you love sports but aren't too excited about science, check out this collection of videos and articles on the science behind the sport (2012 - 2015, University of Utah). See also Science of NFL Football VIDEO (2015, National Science Foundation; hosted on YouTube), Out of the Park: The Physics of Baseball VIDEO (2007, KQED), and Sport Science Archive [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] (Exploratorium).

Study Jams AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Colorful multimedia lessons on a variety of math and science subjects, with videos, slide shows, and songs to help you learn, and quizzes to test what you've learned. Elementary and middle school. (

Understanding Science 101 - Explains what science is, how it works, and why it matters, with advice on untangling media messages and public policies. For students and teachers, grades K-16. (2015, University of California at Berkeley et al.)

Veritasium VIDEO - 'A science video blog featuring experiments, expert interviews, cool demos, and discussions with the public about everything science.' (By Derek Muller, winner of the 2012 Cyberscreen Science Film Festival; hosted on YouTube; site includes advertisements)

Web Adventures INTERACTIVE - A collection of online games which explore microbiology, forensic sciense, drug & alcohol abuse, clinical trials, neuroscience, and science careers; middle school and high school (2009 - 2015, Rice University)

Why Files INTERACTIVE [NOTE: As of January 2016, Why Files is no longer being updated.] - Articles about science and how it affects everyday life. You can browse by general subject (under Archives) or enter a specific search term such as 'mosquitoes,' 'cloning,' or 'global warming'. Includes interactives. (University of Wisconsin)

World Science Festival VIDEO - 'Brings together great minds in science & the arts to present the wonders of science and the drama of scientific discovery to a broad general audience.' Articles, videos, and images from this annual event are posted on the website; high school and up. (Science Festival Foundation; non-profit organization)

Writing and Speaking Guidelines for Engineering & Science Students - Advice, samples, and exercises designed to help students write and speak effectively about science. Also includes materials for instructors. For college and advanced high school students (Michael Alley, Penn State University). See also Writing in the Sciences (University of North Carolina).

Astronomy, Planets, and Space Flight

See also:

African-American Astronauts - See Women in Space and related diversity links, below.

Amazing Space Glossary - Definitions of terms from space science, astronomy, and related fields. High school and up (Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute). See also Imagine the Universe! Dictionary (2013, NASA).

Apollo 13, We Have a Solution - This article details the real-life events that led to the safe return of the Apollo 13 spacecraft in 1970, which was dramatized in the movie Apollo 13. High school and up (2005, IEEE Spectrum Magazine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; site includes advertisements). See also Apollo 13 Mission (NASA).

Astronomy News AUDIO VIDEO - For news about the latest discussions and discoveries in astronomy, see this companion site for Astronomy Magazine. Includes podcasts and video. High school and up. (Kalmbach Publishing; site includes advertisements)

Astro-Venture INTERACTIVE - 'Is the Earth unique? Is there another planet that could support human life? What are the requirements for human habitation?' On this interactive site, middle school students learn about Astronomy, Geology, Biology and Atmospheric Science by searching for and building a planet where humans could live. (2004 - 2012, NASA)

Auroras: Cosmic Light Show - Explains what auroras are, what causes them, why they are different colors & shapes, and more. (2009, Space Science Institute)

Black Holes AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - 'Black holes are places where ordinary gravity has become so extreme that it overwhelms all other forces in the Universe.' This interactive media site takes you on a Journey to a Black Hole. Site also includes an encyclopedia and glossary (2007 - 2014, Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute). For a short introductory animated video for elementary/middle school students, see What is a Black Hole? VIDEO (2016, NASA).

Challenger Accident - Astronaut biographies and other resources related to the January 28, 1986 the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger. You can also see a similar page on the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident. For information on other Space Shuttle missions, see NASA's Space Shuttle page. (NASA)

Chandra Observatory AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Articles, news, photos, podcasts, and videos on astronomy. High school and up. (Harvard University)

Comets - Basic definition with picture and links to more information. Elementary school and up (2015, NASA).

Dark Energy - Learn about the mysterious energy causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate (2014, NASA).

Dark Matter - Q & A about mysterious 'dark matter' whose existence cannot be confirmed by the usual methods of observation. High school and up (2016, Harvard University). See also How do we know dark matter exists if we can't see it? AUDIO and Imagine: Dark Matter (2014, NASA).

Diversity (Astronauts) - See Women in Space and related diversity links, below.

Field Guide to the Universe INTERACTIVE - Descriptions (with images) of the sun and planets in our solar system, plus historical info on spacecraft and brief biographies of astronomers from ancient times through the present. Also includes a 'Design a Space Station' interactive. Middle school and up (2010, Children's Museum of Indianapolis). Imagine the Universe! is intended for students age 14 and up, and for anyone interested in learning about our universe (2015, NASA). See also Planets and NASA's Space Place, below.

Hispanic-American Astronauts - See Women in Space and related diversity links, below.

History of Cosmology - From the ancient Greeks to the present, this site presents 'the story of the colorful individuals, startling ideas and ingenious tools that brought us knowledge of the vast and strange universe we inhabit. Written by leading historians of astronomy, richly illustrated.' (American Institute of Physics)

History of U.S. Space Exploration NEW! - Materials on U.S. space missions past & present, including the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station, plus many related topics in the history of space exploration. (2016, NASA)

Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Resources for exploring the mysteries of the universe. A sister site, Amazing Space VIDEO INTERACTIVE, offers a variety of online astronomy learning resources, including Interactive Explorations UPDATED LINK! of stars, galaxies, comets, black holes, etc., a monthly stargazing show, astronomy trivia quiz, and more. Middle school and up. (2000 - 2016, NASA)

Mars Rover Curiosity Discovery Guide VIDEO INTERACTIVE - 'Fun facts and activities to learn about Mars and all the innovations that make the Mars Science Laboratory mission and its Curiosity rover one of NASA's most exciting space missions.' Middle school and up (2012, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Mars Science Laboratory VIDEO provides additional background info, mission images, and the latest news about 'Curiosity' (2016, NASA). See also Return to Mars VIDEO, an archive of 2012 webcasts that followed Curiosity's landing and initial exploration of the red planet, with stunning images and expert commentary by staff and visiting scientists (2013, Exploratorium).

Mercury MESSENGER - Information about MESSENGER, the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury. Includes FAQs, images, an interactive mission timeline, mission design, spacecraft, instruments, mission team, and Student Activities & Resources AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE. (1999 - 2016, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory)

Meteors and Meteorites - Explains meteors, meteor showers, and meteorites, plus news and related topics; for middle school and up (2014, NASA). See also What causes a falling star? for elementary school and up (1999, NASA).

NASA's Space Place INTERACTIVE - Games, animations, projects, and fun facts about Earth, our Solar System, space and technology, for elementary school kids. NASA for Students VIDEO provides homework help and other resources in separate sections for elementary, middle, high school and college students. Also offers extensive resources for educators. See NASA History and NASA's home page AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE for even more. (2015, NASA)

Planets: What is a Planet? - Examines the history of defining what is a planet, and outlines some of the differences between a planet and a dwarf planet (2013, NASA). For information about specific planets and other objects in our Solar System (and beyond), see the main Solar System Exploration: Planets page (NASA), and Field Guide to the Universe and related resources, above.

Skylab - Facts and history of the Skylab project, the first space station. (2003 - 2015, NASA)

Skywatching (EarthSky Tonight) AUDIO - Star charts and other night sky information for each day, plus skywatching tips and links (2015, Earth and Sky radio series; site includes advertisements). Tonight's Sky AUDIO VIDEO offers great monthly flash videos to help you learn to recognize constellations and other objects in the night sky (Hubble Space Telescope Science Institute). Another excellent radio series available online is Stardate AUDIO, which includes a beginner's guide to the night sky, constellation guide, weekly stargazing tips, and lots more; use the lefthand menu to navigate (University of Texas).

Solar Sailing - News on the LightSail project, an effort to demonstrate that sunlight can propel a spacecraft in Earth orbit (2015, Planetary Society AUDIO). See also Solar Sail Demonstration (The Sunjammer Project) (2013, NASA).

Solar System - See Field Guide to the Universe and related resources, above.

Space Photos UPDATED LINK! - Need pictures for your report? This site has lots of photos of astronauts, spacecraft, planets, and other space-related subjects. (2014, NASA; hosted on flickr)

Space Station VIDEO - Watch the videos to see how the crew eats, sleeps and exercises on the International Space Station. You can also learn about how the space station works, and take a 360-degree online tour (2007, NASA). For the latest news on the Station, see International Space Station. (NASA)

Space Weather Center INTERACTIVE - Articles and interactives on our dynamic sun and space weather. Topics include plasmas, the solar cycle, solar wind, magnetic shields, auroras, and more. For elementary and middle school. (2011, Space Science Institute)

Stellarium - 'Stellarium is a free open source planetarium for your computer. It shows a realistic sky in 3D, just like what you see with the naked eye, binoculars or a telescope.' (2016; created by Fabien Chéreau et al.)

Sun Q & A - Questions and answers about the Sun, such as 'What is the Sun made of?' 'How big is the Sun?' 'How old is the Sun?' 'How hot is the Sun?' and more; for students of all ages. A related page offers summaries on the work of Famous Solar Physicists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galileo, Kepler, Newton and many others; high school and up. See also Sun & Space Weather; high school and up (2011 - 2015, National Center for Atmospheric Research). For more on the sun, see Field Guide to the Universe and related resources, above.

Women in Space AUDIO - Timeline describing the history of women in space from 1960 to 2005. Middle school and up (2005, NPR; site includes advertisements). See also NASA History: Women in Space, Women @ NASA, Women of NASA, Latina Women of NASA, and NASA Women of STEM VIDEO (2012 - 2016, NASA). For more on diversity in the space program, see NASA's African-American Astronauts Fact Sheet (2012) and Hispanic Astronauts (2013).

WorldWide Telescope VIDEO - 'A visualization environment that enables your computer to function as a virtual telescope - bringing together imagery from the world's best ground- and space-based telescopes for the exploration of the universe.' High school and up. (Microsoft Research)

Biology, Anatomy, and Natural History

See also:

Anatomy (Human) - See Body Basics and related links, below.

Ask a Biologist AUDIO VIDEO - 'For students who ever had a question about biology or what it's like to work in the biology field, Ask a Biologist lets them ask the experts - biologists themselves. Designed for students in grades preK-12, this website also features interactive and educational activities for students, teachers and parents.' Includes an audio & video. (2010 - 2014, Arizona State University)

Bacteria - See Microbe World and related links, below.

Biochemistry Animations INTERACTIVE - A collection of interactive animations designed to help students learn about biochemical processes such as cell structure, cloning, DNA replication, nucleotides, photosynthesis, and many more. Also includes concept reviews, quizzes, tutorials, and links. College level (2002, John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc.). See also Chemistry of Life [NOTE: Archived page; some media features may not work.] for problem sets and tutorials in biochemistry (1996 - 2003, University of Arizona).

BIODIDAC - A collection of printable photos & line drawings for zoology, botany, human anatomy, and more. (University of Ottawa)

BioInteractive VIDEO INTERACTIVE - A collection of free learning resources for science teachers and students, including articles, interviews, animations, videos, and interactives. You can browse by topic or resource type; high school and up (Howard Hughes Medical Institute).

Biology of Plants VIDEO - Step-by-step explanations of how plants grow, make food, reproduce, and adapt to the world around them. Well illustrated; middle school and up. (2006, Missouri Botanical Garden)

Biology / Paleontology Glossary - Brief definitions of terms used in Phylogenetics, Geology, Biochemistry, Cell biology, Ecology, Life history, Zoology, Botany, and Paleogeography; many definitions include links to additional information. You can browse the glossary alphabetically or by subject. High school and up. (1995 - 2009, University of California Museum of Paleontology)

Biomes - See See ECOLOGY, WILDLIFE, PLANTS & ANIMALS: Biomes, Habitats, & Ecosystems.

BioScience Issues - A large collection of articles describing current bioscience issues such as biotechnology, biodiversity, environment, genomics, and evolution, and examining how they affect your life. Sidebars summarize key points for each article, and most articles includes links to related information; many also offer educator resources. Mostly for high school and up, though some links for middle school are included (2016, American Institute of Biological Sciences).

Body Basics - Explains how each system, part, and process in the human body works, and what happens when things go wrong; for teens; How the Body Works is a similar page for younger kids (Nemours Foundation Center for Children's Health Media). The Body Explained VIDEO offers brief, entertaining online videos that answer puzzling questions such as 'What Causes Hiccups?' 'What Causes an Ice Cream Headache?' and 'Why Do Onions Make You Cry?' For all ages (2004 - 2011, Baylor College of Medicine). For more on health, see Health Science Education Resources, below, and Homework Links: HEALTH & FITNESS (South Plainfield Public Library).

Brain Facts - Explores the basics about the brain and how it works, and posts brain-related news from around the web; high school and up (Society for Neuroscience). Brain Power VIDEO looks at new tools and techniques for increasing our understanding of the brain; high school and up (2014, National Science Foundation). Neuroscience for Kids has Q & A, experiments, activities, games, and links to help you learn about the brain, spinal cord, neurons and the senses; high school and up (1996 - 2016; by Eric H. Chudler, University of Washington). Lobe-Oratorium INTERACTIVE is an interactive game to help you understand how different parts of the brain work; a PDF transcript is also available; middle school and up (2012, National Institutes of Health). The Dana Foundation's Brain Awareness Resources NEW! include It's Mindboggling! and The Mindboggling Workbook, with lessons, games, riddles, puzzles and activities about the brain for elementary and middle school students, plus additional resources suitable for high school students and teachers. See also Brain: The Inside Story; middle school and up (2011, American Museum of Natural History et al.) and The Learning Brain; for grades 3 - 12 (2015, Baylor College of Medicine). Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, and ongoing research that helps us better understand and treat disorders (2012, National Institute of Mental Health).

Brain Maps INTERACTIVE - An interactive digital brain atlas & virtual microscope showing high-resolution scanned images of both primate and non-primate brains. Includes complete brain atlas datasets for Macaca mulatta, C. aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, and others. For college or advanced high school students (2005 - 2013, University of California). Comparative Mammalian Brains offers images and information for the brains of over 100 different species of mammals, including humans (2010, University of Wisconsin et al.).

Cells Alive! VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Interactives, animations, images and descriptions for cell biology, microbiology, immunology, & microscopy. For college or advanced high school students. (1994 - 2015, by biologist/photographer James A. Sullivan; site includes advertisements). The Virtual Cell Website INTERACTIVE allows you to get a close-up view of several organelles in 3-D. Choose an organelle within the cell and manipulate it by zooming in, rotating the image, and dissecting several organelles to view their contents. If you have trouble, see instructions (1998 - 2004; created by high school & university faculty and students). See also Cell Biology Animation VIDEO INTERACTIVE (by John Kyrk, 2015).

DNA from the Beginning VIDEO - This online tutorial explains classical genetics using text, animation, image gallery, video interviews, problem, biographies, and links. High school and up (2002 - 2011, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory). Learn Genetics VIDEO INTERACTIVE offers helpful instructional animations on genetics (University of Utah). For additional resources, see GeneEd: Genetics, Education, Discovery INTERACTIVE; high school and up (2012, National Library of Medicine).

Encyclopedia of Earth [NOTE: Site was down for relocation when checked 6/16.] VIDEO - 'An electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.' Features articles, news, videos, images & other resources, contributed and reviewed by experts. Style is intended to be useful to students, educators, scholars, professionals, and the general public. High school and up. (2016, National Council for Science and the Environment et al.; site includes advertisements). For more links on environmental topics, see our Homework Links: ECOLOGY, WILDLIFE, PLANTS & ANIMALS and Homework Links: WEATHER & DISASTERS pages.

Environmental Health INTERACTIVE - Links to homework resources and online activities that explain how the environment can affect human health. A few short videos are included. Appropriate grade level (K-12+) is indicated for each resource. Elementary and middle school students should also check out the Kids' Pages for experiments, activities, games, jokes, songs, quizzes, and more! (2014, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences)

Evidence: How We Know What We Know UPDATED LINK! VIDEO - This case study in human origins - exploring how scientific evidence shapes our current understanding of what makes us human, and how we got this way - is used as a starting point to examine the scientific process, revealing the ways in which ideas and information become knowledge and understanding (2009, Exploratorium). For more on human evolution, see Human Origins, below. For more on evolution generally, see Evolution, below.

Evolution [Archived page] - Explains Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and how it was developed; for middle school and high school students (2014, British Broadcasting Corporation). Understanding Evolution is designed 'to help you understand what evolution is, how it works, how it factors into your life, how research in evolutionary biology is performed, and how ideas in this area have changed over time.' Includes Evolution in the News and teaching resources for K-12 (2016, University of California Museum of Paleontology et al.). See also Darwin: The Man and the Theory; high school and up (2005 - 2006, American Museum of Natural History). For online texts of Darwin's writings, see The Complete Works of Charles Darwin (2002 - 2016, University of Cambridge et al.). For more on human evolution, see Human Origins, below.

Eyes Have It [Archived site] - 'Eyes can be simple light-sensitive cells that don't see images, or complex organs that see light, shadow, color, shape, and depth.' On this site you can learn the fundamental facts about vision, eyes and eye anatomy. Includes related resources. High school (2011, San Diego Natural History Museum). Listen AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE offers short videos, lessons, games, and other activities about sound and hearing, and about how listening helps us navigate our world (2006, Exploratorium).

Health Science Education Resources VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Free resources include booklets and websites on topics like cell biology, genetics, chemistry, pharmacology, computational biology and structural biology; Findings, a twice-yearly magazine showcasing vibrant and diverse scientists who do cutting-edge research; interactive games & puzzles; a scientific image gallery with downloadable photos, illustrations and videos; a monthly electronic newsletter that highlights recent scientific advances; and a series of articles about the science of health. Mostly for high school and up (2015, National Institute of General Medical Sciences). NIH Educational Resources UPDATED LINK! VIDEO INTERACTIVE is a collection of high quality health science learning resources, browsable by grade level: elementary, middle, or high school (2000 - 2013, National Institutes of Health Office of Science Education).

Genome: Unlocking Life's Code VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Learning & teaching resources to help students gain a better understanding of current topics in genomics, technology and the impact of genomics (2015, Smithsonian Institution and National Human Genome Research Institute). See also Fact Sheets About Genetic and Genomic Science NEW! (2015; National Human Genome Research Institute), and Genomics Definitions and Terms (2007 - 2014; Horse Genome Project, University of Kentucky). High school and up.

Human Origins: What Does It Mean To Be Human? AUDIO VIDEO - Exploring the question 'What does it mean to be human?', this website is 'dedicated to bringing you the excitement, latest findings, and profound implications of the scientific exploration of human origins.' High school and up (2010 - 2016, Smithsonian Institution). The Human Spark [Archived page] VIDEO is a three-part video series exploring the questions: 'What is the nature of human uniqueness? Where did the Human Spark ignite, and when? And perhaps most tantalizingly, why?' You can watch video clips on specific topics (Neuroscience, Primates, Human Evolution, and Child Development), or view the entire series online (2010, WNET / PBS; site includes advertisements). Becoming Human INTERACTIVE offers an interactive multimedia documentary that tells the story of our origins, plus related classroom materials, games & activities (2008, Institute of Human Origins, Arizona State University). Surviving: the Body of Evidence AUDIO VIDEO is a multimedia presentation explores the past and possible future of human evolution, our place in the natural world, and more. High school and up (2008, Penn Museum). See also Evolution links, above.

Hyper Heart VIDEO INTERACTIVE - An interactive animation/movie demonstrating the processes of a normal cardiac cycle. Also includes an electrocardiogram and heart sounds graph. 'Tutorials are provided for each phase of the cycle and interactive functions can all be utilized within the animation itself. For detailed instructions of the controls please use the HELP button (question mark).' High school and up (Dr. Don Blumenthal et al., University of Utah; date unknown).

Life Sciences CyberBridge - Reviews biology and chemistry concepts that are fundamental to success in introductory college Life Sciences courses. CyberBridge is divided into several topic areas - math in biology, bonding, DNA, Mendel's laws, population genetics, and mitosis & meiosis - each with a tutorial and an assessment quiz. For college freshmen or advanced high school students. (2007, Harvard University)

Microbe World AUDIO VIDEO - Discover the wonderful world of fungi, bacteria, viruses, molds and other slimy things - what they are, where they live, and how we use them. You can also perform experiments, investigate microbes in the news, and learn about careers in microbiology. Includes audio and video podcasts; formerly Stalking the Mysterious Microbe. For middle school and up (2009 - 2015, American Society for Microbiology). Blackwell Publishing offers a Glossary of Terms [Link opens a PDF document]; for college or advanced high school students (2004).

Phylogeny: A Field Guide for the New Tree of Life NEW! VIDEO INTERACTIVE - An interactive feature that can help make sense of the latest discoveries about the 'tree of life', the complex relationships that link all living organisms. Includes links to definitions of terms and related resources. (2016, University of California, Berkeley).

The Scientist Magazine VIDEO - Feature articles, news, and opinion on a wide range of topics in cell & molecular biology, genetics, and other life-science fields. 'Through innovative print articles, online stories, and multimedia features, the magazine explores the latest scientific discoveries, trends in research, innovative techniques, new technology, business, and careers... Written by prominent scientists and professional journalists, articles in The Scientist are concise, accurate, accessible, and entertaining.' High school and up. (Now published by LabX Media Group; site includes advertisements)

Scitable - A free library of articles, currently concentrating on genetics and cell biology, including 'evolution, gene expression, and the rich complexity of cellular processes shared by living organisms. Scitable also offers resources for the budding scientist, with advice about effective science communication and career paths.' High school and up. (2015, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited)

Secrets of the Sequence VIDEO - Fifty of the best videos from the public television series, Secrets of the Sequence. Each 8- to 10-minute video is focused on a particular biology topic such as anatomy, bacteria, bioethics, biotechnology, botany, life sciences careers, DNA, evolution, forensics, genetics, human health, and insects. All the videos have an accompanying classroom-tested lesson which includes background information, curriculum standards, discussion questions & answers, teacher notes, and a classroom activity. Click on a topic to see the list of videos, click on a video title for a description and link to downloadable lesson. High school. (2012 - 2014, Virginia Commonwealth University et al.)

Tree of Life - See Phylogeny, above.

Virtual Labs INTERACTIVE - 'Fully interactive biomedical laboratory simulations in which students perform experiments, collect data, and answer questions to assess their understanding. The labs combine animations, illustrations, and videos to convey key information and engage students in the process of science.' (2015, Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

Chemistry & the Elements

Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - Part of an online textbook which is 'designed to provide a thorough, in-depth treatment of this topic at the first-year college or advanced-HS levels, with a special focus on the underlying concepts.' Covers quanta; light, particles & waves; Bohr atom; quantum atom; atomic electron configurations; and periodic properties of the elements (2005 - 2012; by Stephen Lower, a retired professor of chemistry at Simon Fraser University). See also Periodic Table, below.

Basic Science Concepts Explained VIDEO - These short videos explain some fundamental science concepts (density, float & sink, mass, mixtures, and states of matter) in a fun and entertaining way; middle school and up. (2012, Baylor College of Medicine)

Chem 1 Virtual Textbook - An online general chemistry textbook designed for first-year college or advanced high school students (2014; by Stephen Lower, a retired professor of chemistry at Simon Fraser University). See also Concept Development Studies in Chemistry (2012, John S. Hutchinson, Professor of Chemistry at Rice University).

Chem Matters VIDEO - An online magazine featuring articles and videos that teach you about the real-world applications of scientific concepts you learn in the classroom. For high school students; includes a teacher's guide and related material. A related page, Reactions: Science Videos & Infographics [NOTE: Reactions videos played in Internet Explorer but not in Firefox when checked 6/16] uncovers the chemistry in everyday life; high school and up. (2015, American Chemical Society; videos may include advertisements)

Chemistry Now VIDEO - An online video series that explains the chemistry of common objects such as cheeseburgers and chocolate or soap and plastics. The series also looks at the lives and work of scientists on the frontiers of the 21st century. (2011, National Science Foundation, NBC Learn, and the National Science Teachers Association)

Chemistry Review VIDEO - A review of basic concepts and principles of chemistry, including water, physical change in solids, physical change in liquids, dissolving, chemical change, states of matter, and density. Created for K-8 teachers, but useful for anyone who needs a review of basic chemistry. (2009 - 2016, American Chemical Society)

Chemistry Tutorials - This online tutorial contains reviews of a dozen introductory topics, plus practice problems; use the lefthand menu to navigate. For college or advanced high school students. (2006, Washington University)

Chem Spider - 'A free chemical structure database providing fast text and structure search access to over 32 million structures from hundreds of data sources.' There is also a free app for Android or iOS devices. (2015, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK; site includes advertisements)

Distillations Podcast AUDIO - 'An award-winning science podcast that brings you extracts from the past, present, and future of chemistry.' Middle school and up (Chemical Heritage Foundation). See also American Chemical Society Podcasts AUDIO VIDEO; high school and up.

General Chemistry Online INTERACTIVE - This college-level chemistry site includes a searchable database of over 800 common compound names, formulas, structures, and properties; notes and guides for first semester general chemistry; an interactive toolbox; tutorials; quizzes; and a searchable, annotated database of over 500 general chemistry Web resources. (1997 - 2015; by Fred Senese, Frostburg State University)

History of Chemistry VIDEO - Biographies of more than 100 chemists from the 17th century to the present, with explorations of related themes such as Atomic & Nuclear Structure, Petrochemistry & Synthetic Polymers, Pharmaceuticals, Public & Environmental Health, Microelectronics & Nanotechnology, Chemical Engineering and more, plus hands-on classroom activities to help bring chemistry to life. High school and up. (2010, Chemical Heritage Foundation)

Learn Chemistry AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Thousands of chemistry learning resources for students and teachers. You can narrow the selection by resource type (videos, handouts, worksheets, games, articles, websites etc.), age group (from age 7 through graduate level), and by subject or context. (Royal Society of Chemistry, UK)

Mahjong Chemistry INTERACTIVE - A free game to practice your chemistry knowledge using classic Mahjong gameplay! Covers basic concepts including matching elemental names to symbols, naming polyatomic ions, assigning oxidation numbers, learning electronic configurations, and understanding metric prefixes. For college or advanced high school students. (2012, Stetson University)

Middle School Chemistry VIDEO - 'What happens when solids, liquids, and gases are heated and cooled? Why is one substance more or less dense than another? What causes certain substances to dissolve in water? What happens when a chemical reaction takes place? These questions and many more are explored in Middle School Chemistry, a resource of guided, inquiry-based lesson plans that covers basic chemistry concepts along with the process of scientific investigation.' Materials on this site are mostly for teachers. Related sites for students include Explore Chemistry / Science for Kids INTERACTIVE for K-8; and Student Programs and Resources INTERACTIVE for all ages. (2010 - 2016, American Chemical Society)

Online Chemistry Games INTERACTIVE - Free interactive games and quizzes to help build your knowledge of the elements and the periodic table. Middle school and up. (2010, Sheppard Software; site includes advertisements)

Periodic Table INTERACTIVE - These interactive lessons take you through the periodic table piece by piece to help you understand how it works, and how and why elements interact to make the world you see around you. High school and up. (2014, Annenberg Media)

Periodic Table of the Elements AUDIO VIDEO - Click on any element for a picture, basic facts, and detailed description; now with audio & video, too! Middle school and up (2011 - 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry, UK). The The Photographic Periodic Table includes photos and descriptions (2013; by Popular Science columnist Theodore Gray et al.; site includes advertisements). It's Elemental offers descriptions & data only, no pictures (site maintained by Steve Gagnon, Thomas Jefferson Lab National Accelerator Facility; date unknown).

Strange Matter AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Games, experiments, videos and more offer a fun way for students to learn about the four big things materials scientists study: Structure, Properties, Processing, and Performance. For grades 5 - 8. (2003 - 2012, Ontario Science Centre and Materials Research Society)

Earth, Geology, Rocks & Minerals

See also:

Dynamic Earth Interactive INTERACTIVE - With these interactive lessons you can delve into the earth's interior, learn about its tectonic plates and their movements, and discover how mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes are formed. Middle school and up (2007, Annenberg Media).

Encyclopedia of Earth - See Encyclopedia of Earth, above.

Energy Resources (petroleum, coal, etc.) - See Energy Facts for Kids and related links, below.

Geological Time - See Dinosaurs, Fossils, & Prehistory: Geologic Time

Geology: USGS Primary Education Resources - Earth studies resources for teachers and students, grades K-6. Covers a wide range of topics in Biology & Ecosystems, Geography, Geology (Plate Tectonics, Rocks & Minerals, Earth History, Natural Hazards, etc.) and Water (U.S. Geological Survey) . See also K-5 Geosource, a collection of resources for elementary science education, including content, activities, services and links. Covers Fossils, Weather, Water, Rocks, Soil, and Climate, with images, activities, career information and more (American Geosciences Institute). For grades 7-12, see USGS Secondary Education Resources. (U.S. Geological Survey) [NOTE: Use the left-hand menus to choose a topic.]

Geology Images - Photos of different types of rock and other geologic formations, with brief descriptions. (2000; by Allen Glazner, University of North Carolina)

Math for Geosciences - Instructional modules on math topics that are important in introductory geoscience courses. Each topic includes a page for the instructor, quantitative information for the students, a set of practice problems and quiz. For college or advanced high school students. (2007 - 2015, Carleton College)

Mineral Matters [Archived site] - Learn how to identify minerals, grow your own crystals, or build a collection. Also includes FAQ, puzzles and games. For high school or advanced middle school students (2011, San Diego Natural History Museum). Mineralogy for Kids explores the world of mineralogy, including crystals, mineral groups, mineral properties, and minerals in your house. For high school or advanced middle school students (2015, Mineralogical Society of America).

Rock Cycle INTERACTIVE - An interactive Web site where you can learn how rocks can be identified, how they are formed, and how they change over time. Middle school and up (2007, Annenberg Media). See also Rock Cycle Animations VIDEO, a small collection of simple flash animations illustrating metamorphic rock formation, clastic sedimentary rocks formation, igneous rock formation, and igneous rocks classification (2013 - 2015, Carleton College; compiled by Mark Francek at Central Michigan University).

Schoolyard Geology - 'Wish you could take more field trips? You can! Your own schoolyard is filled with great geologic features! This website is filled with activities and examples of what to look for to turn your schoolyard into a rich geologic experience.' Grades K-12, but mostly for elementary and middle school students (2005 - 2015, U.S. Geological Survey).


Accounting Tutorial - Online review of essential concepts in accounting. (2004 - 2015, Gerald F. Manahan Jr., Student Learning Assistance Center, San Antonio College)

Algebra in Simplest Terms VIDEO - A 1991 video instructional series which 'explains how algebra is used for solving real-world problems and clearly explains concepts that may baffle many students. Graphic illustrations and on-location examples help students connect mathematics to daily life.' High school & college level. Free registration required. This and other online math video series VIDEO (many free) for students and teachers are by Annenberg Media. For tutorials covering all College Algebra concepts as well as prerequisites to College Algebra, see Virtual Math Lab: Algebra (2011; by Kim Seward, West Texas A&M University).

Ask Doctor Math - An archive of answers to math questions, arranged by grade level and subject; all ages. (1994 - 2016, Drexel University Math Forum; site includes advertisements)

Bitesize Maths (KS3) [Choose a topic, then click 'REVISE' for lessons.] INTERACTIVE - This British educational site offers basic lessons on numbers, algebra, data, measurement, shape and space. Also includes activities and quizzes; for middle school students. See Bitesize Maths (KS2) [Archived page; choose a topic, then click 'READ' for lessons.] VIDEO for elementary school students. (British Broadcasting Corporation)

Calculator UPDATED LINK! INTERACTIVE - Performs quick online calculations for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, sign, square, square root, inverse, exponent, and percent (Aspen Labs, publisher of EEWeb Pulse Magazine; site includes advertisements). Uniteasy INTERACTIVE does conversions for angle, area, density, energy, electricity, light, magnetism, radiation, torque, viscosity, and much more; high school and up (author unknown; site includes advertisements). The Drexel University Math Forum's Internet Mathematics Library offers additional selected links to conversion tools and other sites related to measurement. How Much Is It? INTERACTIVE is a simple length, weight, and volume converter for younger kids (Math Cats).

Calculus on the Web INTERACTIVE - A set of online interactive textbooks teaching pre-calculus, calculus, linear algebra, abstract algebra, and number theory; Click here for help with the site (2013; by Gerardo Mendoza and Dan Reich, Temple University). For selected links to additional calculus help, see the Calculus Page (2012 - 2016; by Joel Hass et al., University of California).

Cyberchase Games INTERACTIVE - Math games for kids aged 8 - 11. (2015, PBS)

Figure This! Math Challenge - Cartoon characters present interesting mathematical challenges that students can do at home with their families. Each challenge includes complete solutions, and related support materials and resources for further exploration; middle-school. (2004, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)

Fractals - Explains the special properties of geometric figures called fractals, with activities and links to additional resources. For elementary / middle school students and up. (2007; by Cynthia Lanius, Rice University)

Fun Mathematics Lessons INTERACTIVE - Fun lessons in counting, fractions, ratios, graphs, beginning algebra & geometry, and more; mostly for elementary / middle school students. (2008; by Cynthia Lanius, Rice University)

Geometry: 3D Shapes INTERACTIVE - A collection of fun interactive lessons to help you learn about some of the many three-dimensional geometric shapes commonly found in the world around us. Middle school and up, with some materials for teachers, too. (2007, Annenberg Media)

History of Math - Describes the history of mathematics in various cultures (ancient Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek, Arabic, Chinese, etc.) as well as the history of different branches of mathematics; arranged by topic. Also includes a glossary, math chronology, biographies of mathematicians from 1680 BC to the present (including female mathematicians), and biographical timeline. High school and up (2000 - 2016, University of St Andrews, Scotland). Ancient History Math Mystery [Link opens a PDF] looks at ancient number systems, including Egyptian, Babylonian, Roman, Chinese and Maya numerals. Other activities cover circumference, radius, area and perimeter; converting percents, decimals and fractions, and problem solving. Middle school and up (2013, Penn Museum).

InterActivate INTERACTIVE - Math lesson plans (with interactive lessons), arranged by grade level or subject. Covers number & operations, algebra, geometry, probability, statistics, modeling, and more (Shodor Education Foundation, non-profit organization, and Computational Science Education Reference Desk [CSERD], National Science Digital Library). NCTM Math Interactives INTERACTIVE is a collection of web activities for pre-K through high school. Click on the 'Topic by Grade' drop-down to select a grade level on the left, then a topic on the right; each activity includes a tab for instructions and a tab for exploring related resources (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics).

Math and Cultural Designs VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Examines cultural designs such as cornrow hairstyles, Native American crafts, & break dancing, which are based on mathematical principles. It provides tutorials and software to help you learn mathematics by simulating the original artifacts and developing your own creations. Middle school and up (Ron Eglash, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute). Get the Math VIDEO INTERACTIVE [NOTE: Videos would not play in Firefox when checked 6/16.] 'is about algebra in the real world. See how professionals use math in music, fashion, video games, restaurants, basketball, and special effects. Then take on interactive challenges related to those careers.' (2012, THIRTEEN / WNET).

Math Glossary - Brief definitions of math terms, arranged A to Z. High school and up. (2000, University of St Andrews, Scotland)

Math Readiness INTERACTIVE - Interactive exercises to improve your skills in mental arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, exponential & logarithmic functions, and other math topics most needed by college-bound high school students. For each topic, a green dot is for easy, yellow dot for medium, and red for difficult exercises (2002, University of Saskatchewan). [NOTE: If you want to run the Mental Arithmetic Drills on this website, you will need to install Java, and add the site to the list of exceptions in your Java Control Panel security settings.]

Math Textbooks Online - Links to dozens of free online math textbooks. College level. (2014; by George Cain, Georgia Institute of Technology)

Math Tools INTERACTIVE - A collection of tools, lessons, activities, and other materials for learning or teaching math. (Drexel University Math Forum)

Plus Magazine - 'An internet magazine which aims to introduce readers to the beauty and the practical applications of mathematics... Plus provides articles and podcasts on any aspect of mathematics, covering topics as diverse as art, medicine, cosmology and sport, a news section, showing how recent news stories were often based on some underlying piece of maths that never made it to the newspapers.' Also includes ebooks, interviews, book reviews, and puzzles. High school and up. (Edited by Marianne Freiberger and Rachel Thomas; University of Cambridge, UK)

Statistics VIDEO - 'Against All Odds,' a video instructional series. 'With an emphasis on 'doing' statistics, this series goes on location to help uncover statistical solutions to the puzzles of everyday life.' High school & college level (2013, Annenberg Media). Online Statistics Education VIDEO INTERACTIVE is an online resource for learning introductory statistics, with material presented in textbook format and as video presentations. There is also an e-Pub (e-book) version and an Interactive e-book for iPad and OS X Mavericks (2014; David M. Lane, Rice University, et al.). [NOTE: If you want to run the simulations on this website, you will need to install Java and add the site to the list of exceptions in your Java Control Panel security settings.]

Success in Math - 'Tips on how to study mathematics, how to approach problem-solving, how to study for and take tests, and when and how to get help.' There is also a printable version. Advice is aimed at undergraduates, but should be helpful for high school students too. (1993, Saint Louis University)


See also:
Astronomy, Planets, and Space Flight

Aeronautics - Online tutorial explaining the basic principles, tools, and methods for the study of flight. High school and up. (2012, NASA)

Amusement Park Physics INTERACTIVE - 'How do physics laws affect amusement park ride design? In this exhibit, you'll have a chance to find out by designing your own roller coaster.' Also covers bumper cars, carousels, free fall, and pendulum; includes a physics glossary. Middle school and up (Annenberg / CPB; date unknown).

Atoms Family INTERACTIVE - This fun site offers hands-on activities to help you understand different forms of energy, including light, wave, particle, kinetic and potential energy. Middle school and high school. (1997, Miami Museum of Science)

Calculators - See Calculator and related links, above.

Einstein Light VIDEO - These multimedia modules present the basic concepts of relativity, plus related links for more complete explanations, with or without mathematics (2005 - 2010, University of New South Wales, Australia). At Einstein's Big Idea AUDIO you can listen to audio clips of top physicists describing Einstein's equation to non-physicists. (2005, WGBH / PBS NOVA; site includes advertisements). High school and up.

Electricity & Magnetism: Magnet Academy AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE - 'Whether you're a student, a teacher or just plain curious: You've come to the right place! Featuring demonstrations, videos, activities and more, this site answers your questions about all things electric and magnetic.' Ages 5 through adult. (Florida State University et al.)

Energy Facts for Kids - Explains the different sources and uses of renewable and nonrenewable energy; also offers an energy quiz, and biographies of historic pioneers in energy from Isaac Newton to G. E. Alcorn. Middle and high school students (2001 - 2013, U.S. Department of Energy). Watt's Up? The Lowdown on Energy examines the availability, costs, technologies, advantages & disadvantages of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric, geothermal, nuclear, solar, wind and biofuels; for middle and high school students (2015, American Geosciences Institute). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides educational resources about renewable energy & energy efficiency technologies, including hands-on projects and curriculum suggestions for elementary school, middle school, and high school students (2016, U.S. Department of Energy). Definitions of energy terminology are available in the Glossary of Energy Technology. This site also debunks some common Energy Myths; for middle and high school students (2015, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science offers articles which describe new developments and discoveries in energy technology and related fields; high school and up.

Light and Optics - 'Light is everywhere. It allows to go about our daily activities and provides us with entertainment, security, technological advancements, and healthcare, amongst other things. Discover the different roles light and its applications play in our everyday lives.' High school and up. (2015, International Year of Light, United Nations)

Nanooze - Online (& print) magazine with the latest news about nanotechnology and other developments in science; middle school and up (2015, Cornell University and National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network). Introduction to Nanotechnology explains the basics of 'the science of the extremely tiny.' Also includes some Nanotechnology News; high school and up (2005 - 2015, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Pew Charitable Trusts). See also Nanotechnology: Is it Safe? (2013 Nanooze article) and Nanotechnology Timeline (National Nanotechnology Initiative, a U.S. government research & development initiative). For hands-on activities, see the DIY Nano Book, below.

Physical Sciences Resources - A large searchable directory of high-quality resources in general physics and its various branches, including Astronomy, Optics, Thermodynamics, Electricity & Magnetism, Oscillations & Waves, Quantum Physics, and more; for elementary school through graduate level. Part of Compadre Digital Library, a network of free online resource collections supporting faculty, students, and teachers in Physics and Astronomy Education at all levels. Includes student activities, tutorials, lesson plans, career info, and more. Use the advanced search function to search by topic, resource type, target grade level, and/or target role (2003 - 2015, American Association of Physics Teachers et al.).

Physics Central VIDEO - Helps you learn how physics is part of your world. Answers questions on how things work and keeps you informed about physics in the news, the latest research and the people who are doing it, and more. Includes experiments, comics, and podcasts & vodcasts; middle school and high school. (2015, American Physical Society)

Physics Simulations INTERACTIVE [NOTE: JAVA may be required to view some sims.] - A collection of interactive simulations demonstrating various concepts in physics, including thermodynamics, mechanics, waves, electricity & magnetism, and light & optics (2015, University of Colorado). A related site, Physics Flash Animations INTERACTIVE, illustrates dozens of concepts in physics. Includes animations on chaos, classical & quantum mechanics, electricity & magnetism, optics, relativity, waves, and more, sorted by category (2002 - 2011, David M. Harrison, University of Toronto). Multimedia PhysClips AUDIO VIDEO INTERACTIVE combine animations with audio/video explanations for added clarity (2007 - 2013; Joe Wolf, University of New South Wales, Australia).

Science Fairs, Projects & Experiments

Dirtmeister Investigations - Fun hands-on science experiments on matter, sound, light, electricity, ecology and more; includes links and teachers' notes. Elementary and middle school students. (Scholastic Publishing; date unknown)

DIY Nano Book NEW! - A free downloadable collection of do-it-yourself science activities which investigate nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. Each activity includes lists of widely available, inexpensive materials, step-by-step instructions, and detailed explanations; ages 4 through adult. (2016; Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network, Science Museum of Minnesota et al.)

Exploratorium: Explore, Play, Discover - Science activities, experiments, videos, websites, and more. Arranged by topic; grade level varies. (Exploratorium)

Iron Science Teacher VIDEO - This fun take-off of the Iron Chef TV show gives science teachers five minutes to cook up a math or science demonstration using an everyday item such as a plastic bag, a milk carton, or a nail... After watching the Webcasts, cook up some activities of your own! (Exploratorium)

Kids' Science Challenge VIDEO INTERACTIVE - Fun science games and videos for 3rd to 6th graders. (2008 - 2014, Jim Metzner Productions, Inc. and National Science Foundation)

Kitchen Science Resources - Scroll down to the heading Kitchen Science: At Home and click on a topic to find 'hands-on, tastebud-activating activities that help you understand the science behind food and cooking' (2014, Franklin Institute). See also Foodmaster, a collection of lessons and hands-on activities that use food to teach math and science skills; materials currently available for students and teachers, grades 3 - 5 (2014; sponsored by SEPA, the Science Education Partnership Awards, National Institutes of Health).

Learn x Design NEW! VIDEO - Step-by-step instructions for hands-on activities that can help you learn about design, engineering, invention, and science; suitable for groups or individuals of all ages. (2015, New York Hall of Science et al.)

Mad Science Experiments - An assortment of simple science experiments you can do at home; some are edible! Appropriate age group is listed at the beginning of each experiment, as well as whether or not an adult should be present when it is performed. (1995 - 2006, by the MadSci Network, a collaborative academic project; site includes advertisements)

Marvin & Milo Hands-on Experiments - 'Explore physics the exciting way, by trying out a simple and fun experiment.' Instructions are presented in cartoon form; elementary school and up. (Institute of Physics, UK)

Online Science Activities UPDATED LINK! - Step-by-step instructions for more than two dozen science experiments. Age level not specified, but most appear to be suitable for middle school or high school. A related page, Summer Brain Games UPDATED LINK!, offers eight weeks of free and fun at-home experimentation that will help you learn more about the world around you. Experiments can easily be performed at home by all ages, with a little adult supervision. (Museum of Science & Industry, Chicago)

Paper Plate Science VIDEO - Inexpensive, hands-on, simple-to-complex science activities that use paper plates to supplement lessons in astronomy and other studies; age level varies. (2011, Chuck Bueter, DePaul University)

Physics@Home UPDATED LINK! VIDEO - Hands-on physics experiments you can do at home. (2015, American Physical Society)

Planting Science - 'A learning and research resource, bringing together students, plant scientists, and teachers from across the nation. Students engage in hands-on plant investigations, working with peers and scientist mentors to build collaborations and to improve their understanding of science.' Students can get involved through a participating class project, or can use the Resources for Science Investigations independently. (2013, Botanical Society of America et al.)

Science Buddies [Free registration required.] - To find a great science project idea that can hold your interest, use the Science Buddies' interactive 'Topic Selection Wizard'. Site also offers a 'Project Guide' how-to section with detailed guidance and examples, 'Ask an Expert' feature, and other science project resources. High school. (2002 - 2016, Kenneth Lafferty Hess Family Charitable Foundation)

Science Fair Central - A step-by-step handbook for creating a science project, plus a list of project ideas, links, recommended books, and tip sheets. Middle school and high school. (2013, Discovery Education; site includes advertisements)

Scijinks Steps in a Science Fair Project - A brief summary of the steps you need to take to complete a science fair project; for middle school students. There is also a related collection of Science Activities & Resources VIDEO INTERACTIVE, and the video series, How to Do a Science Fair Project VIDEO; for best results, download the full video before viewing. (NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; videos hosted on YouTube)

STEM Programs and Projects - Links to 'a variety of international, national, regional, and local programs and projects that can help you explore career paths in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine. By participating in these projects, you can also develop a network of other students with similar interests and goals. They also provide opportunities for teamwork and many students earn recognition for their skills through awards and sometimes scholarships.' The site also offers links to Precollege STEM Summer Programs and Camps. Middle school and high school. (2013, Sloan Career Cornerstone Center, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation)

Try Science UPDATED LINK! INTERACTIVE - 'Your gateway to experience the excitement of contemporary science and technology through on and offline interactivity with science and technology centers worldwide.' Grades 5 - 12. (2010 - 2016, New York Hall of Science et al.)

Zoom Activities - Dozens of fun experiments by kids and for kids. Ages 5 and up, with a separate section for preschoolers. (1998 - 2010, PBS)

Zooniverse - At Zooniverse, anyone can participate in real academic research. 'You'll be able to study authentic objects of interest gathered by researchers, like images of faraway galaxies, historical records and diaries, or videos of animals in their natural habitats. By answering simple questions about them, you'll help contribute to our understanding of our world, our history, our Universe, and more!' (Citizen Science Alliance, a collaborative community of scientists, software developers and educators). SciStarter NEW! is another place to find, join, and contribute to science through more than 1600 formal and informal research projects and events - and to learn more about Citizen Science (Science for Citizens LLC; site includes advertisements).

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